Instructional Design and
Classroom Based Research
For educators to make
sound decisions about
education practices
and policies, we must
seek to better
understand the
foundations of
teaching and learning
which guide our
“Studies indicate that teachers need not only content knowledge
but also pedagogical knowledge; consequently, acquisition of a
broad body of knowledge becomes a key component in achieving
professional status in education” (Zepeda 2013).
So many of you may be wondering...
Why do I need to understand the foundations of
teaching and learning if my teaching method is
primarily lecture?
Learning Activities and What We Tend to
Remember after 2 Weeks
Besides requiring only passive learning, the lecture
format does not promote higher order thinking
When does the learning process begin?
What about my efforts to make connections to other disciplines and give
examples of clinical application in my lectures? Doesn’t that encourage
higher order learning?
Why do the students seem to only have a basic understanding of the information?
Active Learning Strategies – Easy to Implement and Research
Pause Procedure
Check for Understanding
Leave Students With a Question
Student Exploration
Primary TB
• Occurs soon after initial infection
• Often seen in children and impaired
• Middle & lower lung zones – most inspired
air – seen most commonly affected by
primary TB
• Pleural effusions common
• Progressive primary TB – primary site rapidly
enlarges, central portion undergoes necrosis
and cavitation develops
– Complications: Bronchiectasis, lymph node
CXR with lower lobe cavity
Post-primary (Secondary) TB
• AKA reactivation or adult-type TB
• May result from endogenous
reactivation of distant latent
• Localized to the apical and
posterior segments of the upper
– Due to higher oxygen tension –
favors mycobacterium growth
– Extent varies: small infiltrates to
extensive cavitary disease
Secondary TB CXR
If it ain’t broke don’t fix it!
VCOM has a track record of:
• Excellent board scores
• Low attrition rate
• Great residency placement
So why change what works?
Why Educational Research?
Educators need to be consumers (and producers) of research. Creswell
(2002) notes the following reasons, describing the various purposes of
educational research:
1. Improve Practice
2. Add to Knowledge
3. Address Gaps in Knowledge
4. Expand Knowledge
5. Replicate Knowledge
6. Add Voices of Individuals to Knowledge
Areas of educational research
There are four main areas of educational research:
All four areas investigate different aspects of
learning and how the brain functions.
Psychological Educational Research
To what extent does teacher communication and feedback impact student
What impact do exit surveys have on teaching practices?
Do pre-reading assignments increase student engagement in the classroom?
What length, what structure, etc...?
Does teacher-student interaction increase through the use of on-line
communication forums? What impact does this have on teaching & learning?
Do students’ perceptions of learning increase when including peer discussion
in the classroom?
Are other forms of assessment more accurate in assessing higher order or
clinical thinking?
No Change Required!
What impact does class attendance have on performance?
Does student’s discipline of interest impact performance?
Do results on daily i-clicker questions correlate to results on exams?
Is there a difference in performance based on preferred learning style?
Do students demonstrate the same level of competency when examining
different genders? When patients are obese?
Think, Pair, Share
Work in groups to identify at least 2
topics related to psychological educational
research that you would be interested in
exploring further in your classroom.
Choose a representative to share your
Advantages of Educational
Classroom-Based Research
 Usually requires no
 Easy to implement
 Little additional
work – based
on what you are
doing in your
 IRB friendly
 Incentive to try
something new
Creswell, J. W. (2002). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed
methods. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Dale, Edgar. (1969). Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching,. (3rd ed.). Holt,
Rinehart & Winston, New York.
Danielson, C. (1996). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for
teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Gutek, G. L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education:
A biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Zepeda, S.J. (2013).
Professional development: What works.
New York, NY: Routledge.
(2nd ed.).

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