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prepared by
Janice Meeking,
Mount Royal College
CHAPTER
7
The Skeleton:
Part A
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Axial Skeleton
• Consists of 80 bones
• Three major regions
• Skull
• Vertebral column
• Thoracic cage
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Skull
Thoracic cage
(ribs and
sternum)
Vertebral
column
Sacrum
Cranium
Facial bones
Clavicle
Scapula
Sternum
Rib
Humerus
Vertebra
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
(a) Anterior view
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Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges
Figure 7.1a
The Skull
•
Two sets of bones
1. Cranial bones
•
•
Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity
•
Cranial vault (calvaria)
•
Cranial base: anterior, middle, and
posterior cranial fossae
Provide sites of attachment for head and
neck muscles
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The Skull
2. Facial bones
•
Framework of face
•
Cavities for special sense organs for sight,
taste, and smell
•
Openings for air and food passage
•
Sties of attachment for teeth and muscles
of facial expression
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Bones of cranium (cranial vault)
Coronal
suture
Squamous
suture
Lambdoid
suture
Facial
bones
(a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull
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Figure 7.2a
Anterior cranial
fossa
Middle cranial
fossa
Posterior cranial
fossa
(b) Superior view of the cranial fossae
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Figure 7.2b
Cranial Bones
• Frontal bone
• Parietal bones (2)
• Occipital bone
• Temporal bones (2)
• Sphenoid bone
• Ethmoid bone
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Frontal Bone
• Anterior portion of cranium
• Most of anterior cranial fossa
• Superior wall of orbits
• Contains air-filled frontal sinus
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Frontal bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Ethmoid
Perpendicular bone
plate
Inferior nasal concha
Vomer
Parietal bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
Nasal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Temporal bone
Ethmoid bone
Lacrimal bone
Zygomatic bone
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Mandible
Mental
foramen
(a) Anterior view
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a
Parietal Bones and Major Associated
Sutures
•
Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault
•
Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal
bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones:
1. Coronal suture—between parietal bones and frontal
bone
2. Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones
3. Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and
occipital bone
4. Squamous (squamosal) sutures—between parietal
and temporal bones on each side of skull
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Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Coronal suture
Parietal bone
Ethmoid bone
Temporal bone
Lacrimal bone
Lacrimal fossa
Lambdoid
suture
Squamous
suture
Occipital
bone
Zygomatic
process
Occipitomastoid
suture
External acoustic
meatus
Mastoid process
Styloid process
Nasal bone
Zygomatic
bone
Maxilla
Alveolar
margins
Mandible
Mental foramen
Mandibular condyle
Mandibular notch
Mandibular ramus
Mandibular angle
Coronoid process
(a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull
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Figure 7.5a
Occipital Bone
• Most of skull’s posterior wall and posterior
cranial fossa
• Articulates with 1st vertebra
• Sites of attachment for the ligamentum
nuchae and many neck and back muscles
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Sagittal suture
Parietal
bone
Sutural
bone
Lambdoid
suture
Occipital bone
Superior nuchal line
External
occipital
protuberance
Occipitomastoid
suture
(b) Posterior view
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External
occipital
crest
Occipital
condyle
Mastoid
process
Inferior
nuchal
line
Figure 7.4b
Maxilla
(palatine process)
Hard
Palatine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Zygomatic bone
Temporal bone
(zygomatic process)
Vomer
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Parietal bone
External occipital crest
External occipital
protuberance
(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)
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Incisive fossa
Intermaxillary suture
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum
Figure 7.6a
Temporal Bones
• Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of
cranial floor
• Four major regions
• Squamous
• Tympanic
• Mastoid
• Petrous
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External
acoustic
meatus
Mastoid
region
Squamous
region
Zygomatic process
Mastoid
process
Mandibular fossa
Tympanic region
Styloid process
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Figure 7.8
Maxilla
(palatine process)
Hard
Palatine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Zygomatic bone
Temporal bone
(zygomatic process)
Vomer
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Parietal bone
External occipital crest
External occipital
protuberance
(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Incisive fossa
Intermaxillary suture
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum
Figure 7.6a
Ethmoid
bone
Cribriform plate
Crista galli
Frontal bone
Olfactory foramina
Anterior cranial fossa
Optic canal
Sphenoid Lesser wing
Greater wing
Hypophyseal fossa
of sella turcica
Middle cranial
fossa
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Internal acoustic
meatus
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal
Posterior
cranial fossa
Foramen magnum
View
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
(a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.7a
Sphenoid Bone
• Complex, bat-shaped bone
• Keystone bone
• Articulates with all other cranial bones
• Three pairs of processes
• Greater wings
• Lesser wings
• Pterygoid processes
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Optic canal
Greater
wing
Hypophyseal
fossa of
sella turcica
Body of sphenoid
Lesser wing
Superior
orbital fissure
Foramen
rotundum
Foramen
ovale
Foramen
spinosum
(a) Superior view
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Figure 7.9a
Body of sphenoid
Greater
wing
Lesser
wing
Superior
orbital
fissure
Pterygoid
process
(b) Posterior view
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Figure 7.9b
Ethmoid Bone
• Deepest skull bone
• Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal
cavities
• Contributes to medial wall of orbits
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Olfactory
foramina
Orbital
plate
Crista galli
Cribriform
plate
Left lateral mass
Ethmoidal
air cells
Perpendicular
plate
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Middle nasal concha
Figure 7.10
Frontal bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Ethmoid
Perpendicular bone
plate
Inferior nasal concha
Vomer
Parietal bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
Nasal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Temporal bone
Ethmoid bone
Lacrimal bone
Zygomatic bone
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Mandible
Mental
foramen
(a) Anterior view
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a
Ethmoid
bone
Cribriform plate
Crista galli
Frontal bone
Olfactory foramina
Anterior cranial fossa
Optic canal
Sphenoid Lesser wing
Greater wing
Hypophyseal fossa
of sella turcica
Middle cranial
fossa
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Internal acoustic
meatus
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal
Posterior
cranial fossa
Foramen magnum
View
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
(a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed
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Figure 7.7a
Sutural Bones
• Tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear
within sutures
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Sagittal suture
Parietal
bone
Sutural
bone
Lambdoid
suture
Occipital bone
Superior nuchal line
External
occipital
protuberance
Occipitomastoid
suture
(b) Posterior view
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External
occipital
crest
Occipital
condyle
Mastoid
process
Inferior
nuchal
line
Figure 7.4b
Facial Bones
• Mandible
• Lacrimal bones (2)
• Maxillary bones
(maxillae) (2)
• Palatine bones (2)
• Zygomatic bones (2)
• Nasal bones (2)
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• Vomer
• Inferior nasal conchae
(2)
Mandible
• Lower jaw
• Largest, strongest bone of face
• Temporomandibular joint: only freely movable
joint in skull
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Temporomandibular
joint
Mandibular notch
Mandibular
condyle
Mandibular fossa
of temporal bone
Coronoid
process
Mandibular foramen
Ramus
of
mandible
Alveolar
margin
Mental
foramen
Mandibular
angle
Body of mandible
(a) Mandible, right lateral view
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Figure 7.11a
Maxillary Bones
• Medially fused to form upper jaw and central
portion of facial skeleton
• Keystone bones
• Articulate with all other facial bones except
mandible
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Articulates with
frontal bone
Frontal process
Orbital
surface
Zygomatic
process
(cut)
Infraorbital
foramen
Anterior nasal
spine
Alveolar
margin
(b) Maxilla, right lateral view
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Figure 7.11b
Frontal bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Ethmoid
Perpendicular bone
plate
Inferior nasal concha
Vomer
Parietal bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
Nasal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Temporal bone
Ethmoid bone
Lacrimal bone
Zygomatic bone
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Mandible
Mental
foramen
(a) Anterior view
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a
Maxilla
(palatine process)
Hard
Palatine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Zygomatic bone
Temporal bone
(zygomatic process)
Vomer
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Parietal bone
External occipital crest
External occipital
protuberance
(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Incisive fossa
Intermaxillary suture
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum
Figure 7.6a
Zygomatic Bones
• Cheekbones
• Inferolateral margins of orbits
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Frontal bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Ethmoid
Perpendicular bone
plate
Inferior nasal concha
Vomer
Parietal bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
Nasal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Temporal bone
Ethmoid bone
Lacrimal bone
Zygomatic bone
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Mandible
Mental
foramen
(a) Anterior view
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a
Nasal Bones and Lacrimal Bones
• Nasal bones
• Form bridge of nose
• Lacrimal bones
• In medial walls of orbits
• Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac
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Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Ethmoid bone
Coronal suture
Parietal bone
Temporal bone
Lacrimal bone
Lacrimal fossa
Lambdoid
suture
Squamous
suture
Occipital
bone
Zygomatic
process
Occipitomastoid
suture
External acoustic
meatus
Mastoid process
Styloid process
Nasal bone
Zygomatic
bone
Maxilla
Alveolar
margins
Mandible
Mental foramen
Mandibular condyle
Mandibular notch
Mandibular ramus
Mandibular angle
Coronoid process
(a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.5a
Palatine Bones and Vomer
• Palatine bones
• Posterior one-third of
hard palate
• Posterolateral walls of
the nasal cavity
• Small part of the orbits
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• Vomer
• Plow shaped
• Lower part of nasal
septum
Maxilla
(palatine process)
Hard
Palatine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Zygomatic bone
Temporal bone
(zygomatic process)
Vomer
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Parietal bone
External occipital crest
External occipital
protuberance
(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Incisive fossa
Intermaxillary suture
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
Maxilla
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum
Figure 7.6a
Inferior Nasal Conchae
• Form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity
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Frontal sinus
Superior, middle, and
inferior meatus
Superior
nasal concha Ethmoid
Middle
bone
nasal concha
Inferior nasal
concha
Nasal bone
Sphenoid
Sphenoid sinus
Pterygoid
bone
process
Palatine bone
(perpendicular plate)
Anterior nasal spine
Maxillary bone
(palatine process)
Palatine bone
(horizontal plate)
(a) Bones forming the left lateral wall of the nasal cavity
(nasal septum removed)
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Figure 7.14a
Orbits
• Encase eyes and lacrimal glands
• Sites of attachment for eye muscles
• Formed by parts of seven bones (next slide)
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Roof of orbit
Supraorbital notch
Superior
orbital fissure
Optic canal
• Lesser wing of
sphenoid bone
• Orbital plate of
frontal bone
Medial wall
• Sphenoid body
Lateral wall of orbit
• Orbital plate
of ethmoid bone
• Zygomatic process
of frontal bone
• Frontal process
of maxilla
• Greater wing of
sphenoid bone
• Lacrimal bone
• Orbital surface of
zygomatic bone
Nasal bone
Floor of orbit
Inferior orbital fissure
• Orbital process of
palatine bone
Infraorbital groove
Zygomatic bone
• Orbital surface of
maxillary bone
Infraorbital foramen
• Zygomatic bone
(b) Contribution of each of the seven bones forming the right orbit
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Figure 7.13a
Nasal Cavity
• Roof, lateral walls, and floor formed by parts of four
bones
• Ethmoid
• Palatine bones
• Maxillary bones
• Inferior nasal conchae
• Nasal septum of bone and hyaline cartilage
• Ethmoid
• Vomer
• Anterior septal cartilage
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Frontal sinus
Superior, middle, and
inferior meatus
Superior
nasal concha Ethmoid
Middle
bone
nasal concha
Inferior nasal
concha
Nasal bone
Sphenoid
Sphenoid sinus
Pterygoid
bone
process
Palatine bone
(perpendicular plate)
Anterior nasal spine
Maxillary bone
(palatine process)
Palatine bone
(horizontal plate)
(a) Bones forming the left lateral wall of the nasal cavity
(nasal septum removed)
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Figure 7.14a
Ethmoid
bone
Crista galli
Cribriform
plate
Sella turcica
Sphenoid
sinus
Frontal
sinus
Nasal bone
Perpendicular
plate of
ethmoid bone
Septal cartilage
Palatine
bone
Hard Palatine process
palate of maxilla
Vomer
Alveolar margin
of maxilla
(b) Nasal cavity with septum in place showing the contributions
of the ethmoid bone, the vomer, and septal cartilage
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Figure 7.14b
Paranasal Sinuses
• Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces
• Lighten the skull
• Enhance resonance of voice
• Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and
maxillary bones
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Frontal
sinus
Ethmoidal
air cells
(sinus)
Sphenoid
sinus
Maxillary
sinus
(a) Anterior aspect
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Frontal
sinus
Ethmoidal
air cells
Sphenoid
sinus
Maxillary
sinus
(b) Medial aspect
Figure 7.15
Hyoid Bone
• Not a bone of the skull
• Does not articulate directly with another bone
• Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing
and speech
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Greater horn
Lesser horn
Body
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.12

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