John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division [email protected] Proper planning and plant selection: affects everything else you do in your landscape. can save energy, effort, water, money, etc. makes the landscape sustainable and more enjoyable. For example, layered planting: miniature firebush (Hamelia patens) bottom layer coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco) next shrub layer gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba) tree NOTE: Understory shrub layer missing only because of parking lot line-of-sight requirements Rhapidophyllum histrix, needle palm (Arecaceae) shade tolerant Suriana maritima Bay Cedar, Surianaceae Great shrub for dry areas. This is a process, not a one-time event! Analyze your site. Use the Florida-Friendly Plant Database http://floridayards.org/fyplants/inde x.php for your region to start selection. Check each species’ geographic distribution in Florida via http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.ed u/ Try to avoid species at the edge of their ranges (e.g., red maple for a planting in the Keys) as they may be acceptable but not OPTIMAL Use http://plants.usda.gov to determine if a species is native if you need to know. Find plants on Plant List or PlantFinder.com Soil organic matter content, including peat pH texture (sand, silt, clay) geological features (limestone, coral, etc.) nutrient content soil testing is currently very difficult Light regime critical FL karst Sand Light Exposure sun or shade Silt Clay Drainage wet vs. dry drainage patterns Wind Patterns need for wind breaks partially enclosed areas Screens privacy noise Standing water: plant sedge and mow Sea Grape Coccoloba uvifera , in front of Live oak Quercus virginiana : as a windbreak Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea privacy screen Bamboo Garden Existing Landscape status of irrigation health, arrangement, Hardscape Limitations and maintenance requirements power lines sidewalks /driveways buildings desirable wildlife Circular drive overplanted- no plan Canopy Subcanopy or Understory Shrub layer • The greater the number of strata (layers) • The greater the protection from hurricane damage and • The greater the reduction in temperature at ground level Herbs & Groundcovers What is the mature size of the plant? Does it grow well in sun or shade? Does it grow well in wet or dry soils? Does it grow in salty conditions? Is it susceptible to pests that may be difficult to control? Helianthus debilis Beach Daisy Be familiar with scientific names- they are key to information Buy healthy plants. Look for new growth. Roots should be white and fibrous. Avoid pot bound plants. Avoid diseased or insect infested Master Gardeners with lenses inspect plants plants. Prepare the soil. Add organic matter to plant beds, especially compost. Soil tests are not very reliable and UF cannot test ours if your pH is over Master Gardeners shop 7.4 for Bay Cedar, Suriana maritima , in the rain. Provide shade. Attract wildlife; provide shelter. Add color and texture. Increase property values. Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape. Sequester and store carbon, mitigating greenhouse gases Reduce heating/cooling costs if properly planted at 30’ from building Quercus virginiana ‘Live Oak’ Palms have only ONE terminal growing point. Palms do not increase in diameter, annually, as they mature. Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter. Palms have a fibrous instead of a tap root system Many palms are harvested from native plant stands. Spring and summer are good times to transplant palms. Palms depend on 8-2-12 +4 fertilizer Palms have many growth habits See palm websites for specialized information Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm showing Solitary stem, with or without leaf bases “boots” Consider: Amount of sunlight Overhead power lines Presence of other trees, structures, roads Underground utility lines Water table, drainage Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home! Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola Southern Red Cedar Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto Know the climatic conditions of your property. Proper planning is important. Match the plants with the site! Know the mature size of the shrub Be sure to group shrubs according to watering and sunlight needs. Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread. Plant carefully with understory trees to install 3 layers above the ground and below canopy. DIVERSIFY- the greater the number of species, the less likely you will lose a large portion of the landscape in the event of a disease or pest. Blackbead Pithecellobium keyense Major turf grass species in Florida St. Augustine grass (70%) The most popular Bahia grass Very drought- tolerant Bermuda grass Used on golf courses Centipede grass Common in the Panhandle New cultivars being evaluated by UF at Hastings Zoysia New cultivars of Zoysia matrellaManila Grass- has texture of Bermuda and wears well for S FL St. Augustine Bahia Bermuda 15 PERENNIAL PEANUT Arachis glabrata POWDER PUFF MIMOSA Mimosa strigillosa See EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the Urban Landscape” HS 960 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep135 and “Mimosa strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep343 For residential use, turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain! Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf, when turf is not necessary for recreation or other uses of the space. Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched beds with shrubs, pathways, etc. Remember to LAYER the landscape. A native plant must also be the RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT PLACE. Native plants are NOT better adapted than others in the right place once they are out of native soil. Native species are NOT more drought tolerant than exotic species in the RIGHT PLACE. The ONLY advantage of native plants is their food value to native and migratory fauna, and to feed Zamia floridana native pollinators (bees, hawkmoths, hummingbirds). ‘Coontie’ Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries http://www.afnn.org; Calicarpa americana “Beauty berry” Rhapidophyllum hystrix ‘Needle Palm’ Passiflora incarnata “Passion Vine” Sambucus nigra var. canadensis “Elderberry” Integrated Pest Management John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent Aspects of Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management– Cultural Practices • • • • • • • • • • Plant Resistant plant varieties Rotate Crops Destroy- mulch and compost crop refuse Till soil and include compost Variation in time of planting or harvesting Pruning or thinning of perennials Fertilization- only minimum amounts Sanitation and water management Planting of trap crops Traps, physical removal of pests 23 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial Insect Picture Ladybugs Target Prey Larvae and adults feed on aphids, scales, mites, and other insect eggs Hover or Flower Flies Larvae feed on aphids and small caterpillars Robber Flies Adults capture flying insects. Larvae live in soil and feed on soil pests (e.g., grubs). Feed on snails, slugs, cutworms and other caterpillars, potato beetles Flowering plants of any kind as a nectar source. Adults eat aphids, small caterpillars, mites, turf grubs, thrips and other small insects. Pollen & nectar plants like dill, goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods Ground Beetles (6-spotted Tiger Beetle pictured here) Big-eyed Bugs How to Attract Them Pollen & nectar plants like dill, goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods Pollen and nectar plants, especially Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel, carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower & plant sunflowers. Pollen-providing plants. Dense cover crops and stone walkways between beds provide cover. 24 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial Insect Picture Assassin Bugs Lacewings (Green and Brown) Target Prey How to Attract Them Adults and nymphs suck Perennial flowering plants provide fluids- killing small shelter. aphids and other small insects; larger assassins kill caterpillars. Larvae (top) eat aphids, Plant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos, scales, thrips, mites, Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod. immature whiteflies and eggs of some pests Tachnid Flies Larvae are parasites of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Dill squash bugs, cutworms, Family, Sweet Alyssum and spearmint Japanese beetles and many caterpillars. Parasitoid Wasps adults inject eggs inside larvae, caterpillars, or pest eggs; wasp larvae eat host Pollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Family, mints and other fragrant herbs. White clover and other legumes also attractants. Broccoli and radishes in flower provide nectar. 25 Integrated Pest Management– Organic Alternatives to Pesticides 26 Integrated Pest Management– Chemical Controls Examples: 1. Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like Imidacloprid, used as a drench for plants NOT pollinated by honeybees. 2. Naturally Occurring Pesticides– Plant extracts with pyrethrins, isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria, and other species in the Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family. 3. Citrus oil- especially from oranges. 4. Eucalyptus oil. 5. Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray. 6. Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad 27 Attracting Wildlife to your Florida-Friendly Landscape John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent Background Florida’s Biological Diversity • Total Animal Species > 17,117 • Vascular Plant species > 4,200 (http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/ ) • 480 species of birds (FFWCC) • 96 species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern) • 177 species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern) and 3 crocodilians (FLMNH) Florida’s Biological Diversity • 111 species of amphibians (FLMNH) • 250 species of freshwater fish • More than 1,000 species of marine fish (FFWCC) • Given that more than 4,675 species of beetles and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there are over 15,000 species of insects in the state (W. Kern, UF-IFAS) Wildlife Needs Shelter (Large plants or snags to hide in); protection from inclement weather; safety from predators and disturbance; to live and raise young Food Water Space sufficient to permit a range or territory for foraging, hunting and mating Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife • Limit the Amount of Lawn • Increase Vertical Layering • Provide Snags and Brush piles • Provide Water • Plant Native Vegetation • Remove Invasive Exotic Plants • Provide Bird/Bat houses and Bird Feeders • Manage Pets • Reduce Pesticide Use • Expand the Scale of Habitat Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance • Do not clean with soap. • Do not use sugar substitutes or honey, red dye in nectar substitute • Do not use insecticides in area • Do clean regularly with vinegar • Do change solution every 3-5 days DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS (Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers) Submerged (submersed) wetland plants grow entirely underwater and cannot survive out of water. Some species are rooted in the soil and some are rootless. Floating or Floating-Leaved wetland plants include plants that are rooted in the ground with leaves floating on the surface and species that float free on the surface with roots dangling in the water. Emergent (immersed) wetland plants are rooted in the ground with the lower portion of the plant growing below and the upper portion growing above the water. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA00700.pdf Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: A Collaborative Effort Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Contact Information Florida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program Florida Master Gardeners of Broward County UF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension Education Parks and Recreation Division 954-357-5270 [email protected] NatureScape Broward Program For yard certification, visit http://www.broward.org/NaturalResources/NatureScape/Pages/HowToGet Certified.aspx, then contact [email protected] Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ A SERVICE OF THE BROWARD COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Broward county programs are open to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. Disabled individuals are requested to notify program two days prior to program for auxiliary aids if assistance is required. Disabled parking space and wheelchair ramp are available. ”The Foundation for the Gator Nation, An Equal Opportunity Institution” This public document was promulgated at a cost of $126 or $1.26 cents per copy to inform the public about FloridaFriendly LandscapingTM, NatureScape, and how to conserve water and reduce nonpoint source pollution.