Right Plant / Right Place

Report
John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS
University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County
Extension Education Section
Parks and Recreation Division
[email protected]
Proper planning and
plant selection:
 affects everything else
you do in your
landscape.
 can save energy, effort,
water, money, etc.
 makes the landscape
sustainable and more
enjoyable.
For example, layered planting:
 miniature firebush (Hamelia patens)
bottom layer
 coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco) next
shrub layer
 gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba) tree
 NOTE: Understory shrub layer
missing only because of parking lot
line-of-sight requirements



Rhapidophyllum histrix, needle palm
(Arecaceae) shade tolerant

Suriana maritima
Bay Cedar, Surianaceae
Great shrub for dry areas.

This is a process, not a one-time
event! Analyze your site.
Use the Florida-Friendly Plant
Database
http://floridayards.org/fyplants/inde
x.php for your region to start
selection.
Check each species’ geographic
distribution in Florida via
http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.ed
u/ Try to avoid species at the
edge of their ranges (e.g., red
maple for a planting in the Keys)
as they may be acceptable but not
OPTIMAL
Use http://plants.usda.gov to
determine if a species is native if
you need to know.
Find plants on Plant List or
PlantFinder.com
Soil

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organic matter content,
including peat
pH
texture (sand, silt, clay)
geological features
(limestone, coral, etc.)
nutrient content
soil testing is currently
very difficult
Light regime
critical
FL karst
Sand
Light Exposure

sun or shade
Silt
Clay
Drainage
 wet vs. dry
 drainage patterns
Wind Patterns


need for wind breaks
partially enclosed areas
Screens


privacy
noise
Standing water:
plant sedge and
mow
Sea Grape
Coccoloba uvifera ,
in front of Live oak
Quercus virginiana :
as a windbreak
Golden Bamboo
Phyllostachys aurea
privacy screen
Bamboo Garden
Existing Landscape
 status of irrigation
 health, arrangement,
Hardscape
Limitations
and maintenance
requirements
 power lines
 sidewalks /driveways
 buildings
 desirable wildlife
Circular drive overplanted- no
plan
Canopy
Subcanopy
or
Understory
Shrub layer
• The greater the number of strata (layers)
• The greater the protection from hurricane
damage and
• The greater the reduction in temperature at
ground level
Herbs &
Groundcovers


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What is the mature size of the
plant?
Does it grow well in sun or
shade?
Does it grow well in wet or dry
soils?
Does it grow in salty conditions?
Is it susceptible to pests that may
be difficult to control?
Helianthus debilis
Beach Daisy


Be familiar with scientific
names- they are key to
information
Buy healthy plants.
 Look for new growth.
 Roots should be white and fibrous.
 Avoid pot bound plants.
 Avoid diseased or insect infested
Master Gardeners with
lenses inspect plants
plants.

Prepare the soil.
 Add
organic matter to plant beds,
especially compost.
 Soil tests are not very reliable and
UF cannot test ours if your pH is over
Master Gardeners shop
7.4
for Bay Cedar, Suriana
maritima , in the rain.

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Provide shade.
Attract wildlife; provide
shelter.
Add color and texture.
Increase property
values.
Provide a framework
for the rest of the landscape.
Sequester and store carbon,
mitigating greenhouse gases
Reduce heating/cooling costs
if properly planted at 30’ from
building
Quercus virginiana
‘Live Oak’
Palms have only ONE terminal
growing point.
 Palms do not increase in
diameter, annually, as they
mature.
 Palm roots grow longer but do
not increase in diameter.
 Palms have a fibrous instead of a
tap root system
 Many palms are harvested from
native plant stands.
 Spring and summer are good
times to transplant palms.
 Palms depend on 8-2-12 +4
fertilizer
 Palms have many growth habits
 See palm websites for
specialized information

Sabal palmetto
Cabbage Palm
showing
Solitary stem,
with or without
leaf bases “boots”
Consider:
Amount of sunlight
 Overhead power lines
 Presence of other trees,
structures, roads
 Underground utility lines
 Water table, drainage
 Trees should be planted
at least 15 ft from the
foundation of a home!

Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola
Southern Red Cedar




Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto

Know the climatic
conditions of your
property.
Proper planning is
important.
Match the plants with the
site!
Know the mature size of
the shrub
Be sure to group shrubs
according to watering and
sunlight needs.



Don’t plant shrubs too
close together. Space them
according to how far they
will spread.
Plant carefully with
understory trees to install 3
layers above the ground
and below canopy.
DIVERSIFY- the greater
the number of species, the
less likely you will lose a
large portion of the
landscape in the event of a
disease or pest.
Blackbead
Pithecellobium keyense
Major turf grass species
in Florida

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St. Augustine grass (70%)
 The most popular
Bahia grass
 Very drought- tolerant
Bermuda grass
 Used on golf courses
Centipede grass
 Common in the Panhandle
 New cultivars being evaluated by UF
at Hastings
Zoysia
 New cultivars of Zoysia matrellaManila Grass- has texture of
Bermuda and wears well for S FL
St.
Augustine
Bahia
Bermuda
15
PERENNIAL PEANUT
Arachis glabrata
POWDER PUFF MIMOSA
Mimosa strigillosa
See EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the
Urban Landscape” HS 960 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep135 and “Mimosa
strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep343
For residential use, turf areas should be
functional and easy to maintain!

Landscaping beds require less
effort and cost less to maintain
than turf, when turf is not
necessary for recreation or other
uses of the space.

Consider low-maintenance
ground covers, mulched beds
with shrubs, pathways, etc.
Remember to LAYER the
landscape.
A
native plant must also be the
RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT
PLACE. Native plants are NOT
better adapted than others in the
right place once they are out of
native soil.
 Native species are NOT more
drought tolerant than exotic
species in the RIGHT PLACE.
 The ONLY advantage of native
plants is their food value to native
and migratory fauna, and to feed Zamia floridana
native pollinators (bees,
hawkmoths, hummingbirds).
‘Coontie’
Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries http://www.afnn.org;
Calicarpa americana
“Beauty berry”
Rhapidophyllum hystrix
‘Needle Palm’
Passiflora incarnata
“Passion Vine”
Sambucus nigra var. canadensis
“Elderberry”
Integrated Pest Management
John J. Pipoly III,
Ph.D., Extension
Agent
Aspects of Integrated Pest
Management
Integrated Pest Management–
Cultural Practices
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Plant Resistant plant varieties
Rotate Crops
Destroy- mulch and compost crop refuse
Till soil and include compost
Variation in time of planting or harvesting
Pruning or thinning of perennials
Fertilization- only minimum amounts
Sanitation and water management
Planting of trap crops
Traps, physical removal of pests
23
Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape
Beneficial Insect Picture
Ladybugs
Target Prey
Larvae and adults feed
on aphids, scales, mites,
and other insect eggs
Hover or Flower
Flies
Larvae feed on aphids
and small caterpillars
Robber Flies
Adults capture flying
insects. Larvae live in
soil and feed on soil
pests (e.g., grubs).
Feed on snails, slugs,
cutworms and other
caterpillars, potato
beetles
Flowering plants of any kind as a nectar
source.
Adults eat aphids, small
caterpillars, mites, turf
grubs, thrips and other
small insects.
Pollen & nectar plants like dill,
goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, Sweet
Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled
with gravel during dry periods
Ground Beetles
(6-spotted Tiger
Beetle pictured
here)
Big-eyed Bugs
How to Attract Them
Pollen & nectar plants like dill,
goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum.
Provide water in pan filled with gravel
during dry periods
Pollen and nectar plants, especially
Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel,
carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower
& plant sunflowers.
Pollen-providing plants. Dense cover
crops and stone walkways between beds
provide cover.
24
Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape
Beneficial Insect Picture
Assassin Bugs
Lacewings (Green
and Brown)
Target Prey
How to Attract Them
Adults and nymphs suck Perennial flowering plants provide
fluids- killing small
shelter.
aphids and other small
insects; larger assassins
kill caterpillars.
Larvae (top) eat aphids, Plant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos,
scales, thrips, mites,
Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod.
immature whiteflies and
eggs of some pests
Tachnid Flies
Larvae are parasites of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Dill
squash bugs, cutworms, Family, Sweet Alyssum and spearmint
Japanese beetles and
many caterpillars.
Parasitoid Wasps
adults inject eggs inside
larvae, caterpillars, or
pest eggs; wasp larvae
eat host
Pollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae
(Umbelliferae) Family, mints and other
fragrant herbs. White clover and other
legumes also attractants. Broccoli and
radishes in flower provide nectar.
25
Integrated Pest Management– Organic Alternatives to Pesticides
26
Integrated Pest Management–
Chemical Controls
Examples:
1. Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like
Imidacloprid, used as a drench for plants NOT pollinated by
honeybees.
2. Naturally Occurring Pesticides– Plant extracts with pyrethrins,
isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera
Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria, and other species in the
Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family.
3. Citrus oil- especially from oranges.
4. Eucalyptus oil.
5. Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray.
6. Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad
27
Attracting Wildlife to
your Florida-Friendly
Landscape
John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent
Background
Florida’s Biological Diversity
• Total Animal Species > 17,117
• Vascular Plant species > 4,200
(http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/ )
• 480 species of birds (FFWCC)
• 96 species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern)
• 177 species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern)
and 3 crocodilians (FLMNH)
Florida’s Biological Diversity
• 111 species of amphibians (FLMNH)
• 250 species of freshwater fish
• More than 1,000 species of marine fish
(FFWCC)
• Given that more than 4,675 species of beetles
and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total
insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there
are over 15,000 species of insects in the state
(W. Kern, UF-IFAS)
Wildlife Needs
 Shelter (Large plants or snags
to hide in); protection from
inclement weather; safety from
predators and
disturbance; to live
and raise young
 Food
 Water
 Space sufficient to
permit a range or territory for
foraging, hunting and mating
Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife
• Limit the Amount of Lawn
• Increase Vertical Layering
• Provide Snags and Brush piles
• Provide Water
• Plant Native Vegetation
• Remove Invasive Exotic Plants
• Provide Bird/Bat houses and Bird
Feeders
• Manage Pets
• Reduce Pesticide Use
• Expand the Scale of Habitat
Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance
• Do not clean with soap.
• Do not use sugar
substitutes or honey, red
dye in nectar substitute
• Do not use insecticides in
area
• Do clean regularly with
vinegar
• Do change solution every
3-5 days
DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS
(Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers)
Submerged (submersed)
wetland plants grow entirely
underwater and cannot survive out
of water. Some species are rooted in
the soil and some are rootless.
Floating or Floating-Leaved
wetland plants include plants that
are rooted in the ground with leaves
floating on the surface and species
that float free on the surface with
roots dangling in the water.
Emergent (immersed) wetland
plants are rooted in the ground with
the lower portion of the plant
growing below and the upper portion
growing above the water.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA00700.pdf
Florida-Friendly Landscaping™:
A Collaborative Effort
Florida-Friendly Landscaping™
Contact Information
Florida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
Florida Master Gardeners of Broward County
UF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension Education
Parks and Recreation Division
954-357-5270
[email protected]
NatureScape Broward Program
For yard certification, visit
http://www.broward.org/NaturalResources/NatureScape/Pages/HowToGet
Certified.aspx, then contact [email protected]
Florida-Friendly Landscaping™
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