Rs - WASSAN

Report
Rainfed Agriculture: An Evolving Approach for
Inclusive Growth of Rainfed Areas
Ravindra A
Revitalising Rainfed Agriculture Network
(RRA-Network)
www.wassan.org
THE STORY OF GREEN
REVOLUTION . .
Productivity gradient in
rice (t / ha)
Irrigated Lands
5
Poverty Clusters
Fundamental Principles of GR:
• Intensive irrigation in select wellendowed areas
• Few Crops : Rice & Wheat
• HYVs – research back up
• Assured Price & procurement
• Produce surplus food
• Distribute across the country
•
•
•
•
SEEDS
Fertilizers
Pesticides/ herbicides
Machines
Research
Industry
Seeds
Extension
Irrigation
Fertilisers
Premises of Agriculture
Policy and investments in India :
1. Input-response
2. Intensive inputs
3. Well-endowed areas
(water/ soils /
topography)
4. High productivity &
surplus generation
Transport
Creating
Demand
Storage
Credit
Price
Support
Machinery
Energy
Labour
Energy
This has become de facto agriculture policy, even extended to rainfed areas
Singular agricultural policy ‘naturally’
discriminated the rainfed areas……
Research
Industry
Seeds
Fertilisers
Transport
Extension
• Undulating
• Marginal lands
• Low soil Irrigation
depth
• High climate variability
• interior
Machinery
• Low inputs
•…..
Creating
Demand
Storage
Price Support
Labour
What Public Policy Support is Available?
The Story of
Rainfed
Areas!!
WHAT BRINGS DEVELOPMENT OF
‘RAINFED AREAS’ AGRICULTURE..?
5000
4500
Grain yield (kg/ha)
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
Control
FYM @ 10 t/ha + 100% NPK
FYM @ 10 t/ha
100% NPK
1 to 2 tons / ha increase if FYM is added..
20
10
20
08
20
06
20
04
20
02
20
00
19
98
19
96
19
94
19
92
19
90
19
88
19
86
19
84
0
FYM @ 10 t/ha + 50% NPK
BIOMASS & AGRONOMY HOLD THE KEY
Performance of SRI
Cost Item
Land preparation cost (Rs)
SRI
Conv entional
2033
2423
DAP (Kg)
76
58
Urea (Kg)
65
56
1369
1166
Seed rate (Kg)
2.5
30.5
Seed cost (Rs)
54
553
Age of the seedlings (days)
14.5
28
Transplantation cost (Rs)
1212
1874
Weeding cost (Rs)
666
1174
Pest management cost (Rs)
180
185
Wages for harvesting (Rs)
1382
2029
Wages for threshing (Rs)
658
946
Total cost of cultivation (Rs)
7983
10170
Grain yield (Q)
21.5
18.5
Gross income (Rs)
22759
20241.5
Net income (Rs)
14633
9264
1.95
0.85
Inorganic fertilizers cost (Rs)
B:C
Supplemental
irrigation can
increase yields
by 30 – 40 %
REQUIRED INVESTMENTS
PRESENT WATER INVESTMENTS
THE BASIS OF RAINFED AREAS’
POLICIES..
Policy Paradigm:
PRODUCE SURPLUS
IN WELL-ENDOWED
DISTRICTS.
Few high response
crops in the food
systems.
PRODUCE SURPLUS
in local areas.
Protect localdiverse food crops
consumption
GR
Relevant
DISTRIBUTE
TO ALL
DISTRICTS
Local production
and sufficiency &
Local incomes
DOES IT
WORK?
Watershed
development
NRM
Agriculture
Development
Production Systems
Livelihoods
Poverty
programs
WHAT TO SUPPORT ? ..
Table : Cost of composting (data for the period December 2006 to April 2007)
Description
Volume of Compost bed
Collection of Biomass (wage days)
Out turn for collection
Preparation of compost bed (wage days)
Out turn for preparation of bed
Watering (wage days)
Out turn for Watering
Local Wage rate (in 2006-07)
Cost of compost making
Total Compost Output expected
No of person days required for producing
one Cum
Units
Cu m
no of days
Cu m Per day
No. of days
Cu m Per day
No
Cu m Per day
Rs./ day
Rs
Cu m
No
Average
9.73
9.50
1.13
3.33
3.20
10.00
0.97
60.00
1370.00
3.21
7.89
Source : work, motion studies carried out by WASSAN as a part of AP Drought
Adaptation Initiative.
BRING SOM – into the realm of PUBLIC POLICY
• Addition of soil organic matter is an economic
decision of the farmer that weighs
– Prices of alternate crops
– Input requirements (including labor)
– Wage rates
– Capital costs
– Net incomes
• If soil organic matter is important, it has to be
brought into the ambit of ‘Public Policy’.
Irrigation
Investments
300000
Rs. Per ha
250000
200000
• What can the rainfed
farmer achieve if such
investments are
available?
150000
100000
50000
0
Irrigation
Watershed
District : Anantapur
900000
800000
Total major millets
700000
Total minor millets
600000
500000
Total pulses
400000
Paddy
300000
Total food grains
200000
Groundnut
100000
Cotton
0
1961–62 1971–72 1981–82 1991–92 2001–02 2005–06
Trends in Crop Area
3500000
Trends in Livestock
3000000
2500000
cattle
2000000
buffalo
1500000
1000000
sheep
500000
goats
0
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Sustainable Farming Systems
Approach to
W/S
Conservation
Production
Livelihoods
Unsustainable Engineering
approach to w/s
Paradigmatic Shifts in Policy :
• Rainfed areas have high growth potential..
• Parity of investments – enhance investments
in rainfed agriculture (incl livestock &
Fisheries)
• Relevant frame work of public investments /
incentives and subsidies

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