Unit II, Lesson 2 一. Yii.jing 已經 : Already 1. 他已經知道了。 He already knows. Ta yii.jing jy.daw.le. 2. 我已經看了。 I already saw it. I have already looked at it. Woo yii.jing kann.le. I have already read it. 3. 他已經吃完了。 He has already finished (eating) it. Ta yii.jing chy-wan.le. Unit II, Lesson 2 二. Budah 不大 : Not too, not very much, not too much. Similar to Butay 1. 丁一的字不大好看。Ding I’s characters are not too goodlooking. Ding I .de tzyh budah haokann. 2. 我不大喜歡海參。 I am not overly fond of sea slugs. Woo budah shii.huan haeshen. 3. 我不大想去。 I am not really very eager to go. Woo budah sheang chiuh. Unit II, Lesson 2 三. Adverbial Complements, substantive and predicate 1. 他跑得快不快﹖ 他跑得很快。 他跑得不快。 Ta pao.de kuay.bukuay? Ta pao.de heen kuay. Ta pao.de bukuay. Does he run fast? He runs fast. He does not run fast. 2. 他吃得太快。 He eats too fast. He ate too quickly. Ta chy.de tay kuay. 3. 他吃得太多。 He eats too much. He ate too much. Ta chy.de tay duo. 4. 他唱得難聽極了。 He sings (sang) atrociously. Ta chanq.de nanting-jyi.le. Unit II, Lesson 2 N.B. Adverbial Complements can only follow verbs. Hence the verbal part of a verb-object compound must be pulled out and repeated before an adverbial complement can modify it. 5. 他說話說得很快。 He speaks (very) quickly. Ta shuo-huah shuo.de heen kuay. 6. 他寫字寫得不大好。 His characters aren’t so hot. Ta shiee-tzyh shiee.de budah hao. Unit II, Lesson 2 四. Yeou shyr.how1 有時候儿 or Yeou.de shyr.howl 有的時候儿: sometimes. (before verb, before or after subject): 1. 丁一有的時候儿來，有的時候儿不來。 Ding I yeou.de shyr.howl lai, yeou.de shyr.howl bu lai. Ding I sometimes comes and sometimes doesn’t. 2. 有時候丁一說他是拿破崙。 Yeou shyr.how Ding I shuo ta sh Napohlun. Somtimes Ding I says he is Napoleon. Unit II, Lesson 2 五. Yeou.de有的 : Some - Used with nouns or as a pronoun: 1. 有的人喜歡，有的人不喜歡。 Yeou.de ren shii.huan, yeou.de ren bushii.huan. Some people like it and some people don’t. 2. 有的想去，有的不想去。 Yeou.de sheang chiuh, yeou.de bu sheang chiuh. Some would like to go, and some wouldn’t. 3. 有的好極了。Some are fantastic. Yeou.de hao-jyi.le. Unit II, Lesson 2 六. Yiiwei 以為 :Lit. to take to be; to think (erroneously) that: 1. 對不起，我以為你是丁一。Sorry, I thought you were Ding I. Duey.buchii, woo yiiwei nii sh Ding I. 2. 我以為你會！ I thought you knew how! Woo yii wei nii huey! 3. 他們以為我們不會來。 They didn’t think we would come. Ta.men yiiwei woo.men buhuey lai. They thought we wouldn’t come. Unit II, Lesson 2 七. Chyishyr 其實: Actually, contrary to what was said, assumed, or expected. 1. 其實我不太喜歡海參。 Chyishyr, woo butay shii.huan haeshen. Actually I can keep my passion for seaslugs under control. 2. 我以為龍都是綠的，其實有的是紅的。 Woo yiiwei long dou sh liuh.de, chyishyr yeou.de sh horng.de. I thonght dragons were all green, but actually some are red. 3. 他其實沒有三個太太，他只有兩個。 Ta chyishyr meiyeou sang tay.tay. Ta jyy yeou leangg. Actually he doesn’t have three wives. He only has two. Unit II, Lesson 2 八. Yonq 用and Na 拿 Used as First Position Verbs 1. 丁一的母親也用手吃飯，是不是﹖ Ding I .de muu.chin yee yonq shoou chy-fann, sh.bush? Ding I’s mother also eats with her hands, does she not? 2. 用中文說。Say it in Chinese. Yonq Jongwen shuo. 3. 你怎麼能用叉子切牛肉呢﹖ Nii tzeem.me neng yonq chatz chie niourow .ne? How can you cut beef with a fork? 4. 你別拿茶碗吃飯，好不好? Nii bye na charwoan chy-fann, hao.bu hao. Please don’t use a tea bowl to eat rice. 5. 你怎麼拿李老師的皮包打他呢﹖ Eh, nii tzeem.me na Lii Laoshy .de pyibau daa .ta .ne? Hey, how can you hit him with Professor Lii’s purse?! Unit II, Lesson 2 九. Tzay 再 : And then (Used only for proposed or anticipated actions): 1. 我們先吃再談。 Woo.men shian chy tzay tarn. Let’s eat first and then talk. 2. 我想他會先到丁一那儿，再到這儿來。 Woo sheang ta huey shian daw Ding I .nall, tzay daw jell lai. I think he’ll go to Ding I’s first and then come here. 3. 你放下刀子再跟我說話，好不好﹖ Nii fanq.shiah dautz tzay gen woo shuo-huah, hao.bu hao? How about putting down your knife and then talking with me? 4. 他先说，你再说，好不好？ He speaks, and then you, ok? Ta shian shuo, nii tzay shuo, hao .buhao? Unit II, Lesson 2 十. Guoh 過: Used as a Complement: To have done something once or before, to have had the experience of: 1. 你看過丁一的龍沒有﹖ Have you ever seen Ding I’s dragon? Nii kann.guoh Ding I .de long .mei.yeou? 2. 我沒想過那件事情。 I’ve never thought about the matter. Woo mei sheang.guoh ney jiann shyh.chyng. 3. 我還沒去過月亮呢。I haven’t been to the moon yet. Woo hair mei chiuh.guoh yueh.lianq .ne. 4. 我雖然看過毛澤東，但是我沒有跟他說過話。 Woo sweiran kann.guoh Mau Tzerdong, dann.sh woo meiyeou gen ta shuo.guoh huah. Although I’ve seen Mau Tzerdong before, I never spoke to him. Unit II, Lesson 2 十一. I AN i AN 一....一.... : One by One, One after Another (Adverbial phrases preceding verb) 1. 你一個字一個字地看太慢。 Nii ig tzyh ig tzyh .de kann tay mann. If you read it character by character it’s too slow. 2. 事情一件一件地做完了。He finished things one by one. Shyh.chyng ijiann ijiann .de tzuoh-wan.le. 3. 你看他一杯一杯地喝。Look at him downing glass after glass. Nii kann ta ibei ibei de he. 4. 學生們一個一個地出去了。 Shyue.dheng.men ig ig .de chu-chiuh.le. The students departed one by one. Unit II, Lesson 2 十二. Tsyh 次: A time, Once, Twice, Thrice, etc. 1. 她每次都對。 She is right (she was right) every time. Ta meei tsyh dou duey. 2. 他已經去了三次。 He has already been three times by now. Ta yiijing chiuh.le san tsyh .le. 3. 我們在中國的時候儿,看了一次美國電影。 Woo.men tzay Jonggwo .de shyr.howl, kann.le i tsyh Meeigwo diannyiin. When we were in China, we saw an American movie (i.e. on one occasion) 4. 上次我沒去。 Last time I didn’t go. Shanq tsyh woo mei chiuh. 5. 下次我不說了。 Next time I won’t say that (I won’t say that again). Shiah tsyh woo bu shuo .le. Unit II, Lesson 2 十三. Duey 對 : Used as a First Position Verb with the sense of towards, to, for: 1. 四聲對中國人不難，對外國人可難極了。 Syh sheng duey Jonggworen bunan, duey waygworen kee nan-jyi.le. The four tones aren’t difficult for Chinese, but they certainly are for foreigners. 2. 他對我說，"你跳湖去吧。" Ta duey woo shuo, “Nii tiaw hwu .chiuh .ba.” He said to me, “Go jump in the lake.” 3. 我沒對他說甚麼，但是也沒跳。 Woo mei duey .ta shuo sherm.me, dann.sh yee mei tiaw. I didn’t say anything to him, but I didn’t jump either. 4. 丁一對他母親很好。Ding I is very good to his mother. Ding I duey ta muu.chin heen hao.