Diabetes: Type 2

Report
Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus
The name “diabetes mellitus means
sweet urine. It stems from ancient times
when physicians would taste a patients
urine as a part of a diagnosis.
Current Population Trend
Diabetes is the growing heath problem in
the United States and has risen about six
fold since 1950. Its now affecting about 17
million Americans and one third of those
Americans (5.9 million) don’t even now
they have the disease. Today, not only are
adults being diagnosed with this disease,
but its also affecting today’s youth.
What’s Occuring in the body?
Our body uses a hormone called insulin to
handle glucose, which is a simple sugar
that’s a main source of energy. In
diabetes, something goes wrong in the
body so that you can not produce insulin
or are not sensitive to it. That means that
your body produces high levels of blood
glucose, which acts on organs to produce
the symptoms of the disease.
Development of Type 2
• Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy to
all cells in the body
• The cells take in glucose from the blood and break
it down for energy, most of this is used for fuel.
• Glucose come from the food you eat
Development of Type 2
• Glucose gets absorbed from the intestines and
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distributed by the bloodstream to all cells.
The body tries to maintain a constant glucose
concentration in the blood.
So, when you over supply on glucose, your body
stores the excess in the liver and muscles by
making glycogen
When glucose is in short supply, the body makes
glucose from stored glycogen or from the food
that’s been eaten.
To maintain a constant blood
glucose level, the body relies on
two hormones produced in the
pancreas that have opposite
actions: insulin and glucagon.
Facts on Type 2
•Type 2 diabetes is a disease that generally
develops over a period of years.
• People who will eventually develop this disease
are insulin resistant several years before their
blood sugars become abnormal.
•Their bodies try to make up for the higher insulin
needs created by insulin resistance by producing
more insulin.
Facts on Type 2
• But in Type 2 diabetes, the body ends up
producing abnormally high levels of insulin
over the years eventually begins to have a
negative effect.
• The pancreas gradually begins to lose its
ability to produce the extra insulin needed to
overcome insulin resistance. As body insulin
levels fall, blood sugars begin to rise.
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Type 2 diabetes and the insulin resistance that
causes it have a strong genetic basis and are
made worse by environmental factors, including
inactivity, weight gain, and stress.
Most people are overweight at the time their Type
2 diabetes is discovered. Being more active or
losing weight may help prevent or delay the
development of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes was once called "Adult-onset
Diabetes" but this term is no longer used because
it is inaccurate. Type 2 diabetes is on the increase
in all age groups, even among children of high
school and grade school age.
Who gets Type 2
Diabetes?
Most people are lead to believe that they’re
to blame for the disease. However, this
disease can also be inherited by genes as
well. Not everyone that eats a lot of sugar
and is overweight have the disease. But there
are higher risks for people developing type 2
diabetes. Here are some facts on how it is
people obtain this disease:
•People who are overweight
•Have a parent or sibling with diabetes
•Are 40 years of age
•Have high blood pressure
•Are African America, Latino, or Native
American
•Had diabetes during pregnancy
•Have the stress of an illness or injury
•Had a baby that weighed more than 9
pounds at birth.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is often without symptoms
in its early stages. That’s the reason there
are 40% of people with Type 2 diabetes
are unaware of their disease. When there
are symptoms, they may occur gradually.
If present, they usually are:
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feeling tired and weak
passing large volumes of urine, especially during
the night
having frequent infections
having blurred eyesight
Weight-loss
Excessive hunger and thirst
RISK FACTORS!
If left untreated this, Diabetes can cause many
life threatening complications:
 Blindness
 Chronic Renal Failure= kidney failure
 Atherosclerosis= heart attacks and stroke
 Diabetic Neuropathy= numbness and pain to hands
and feet
 Foot Ulcers
 Autonomic Neuropathy= diarrhea, rapid heart beat,
and low blood pressure
Risk Factors!
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Coma or death may occur as a result in
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (caused by
infection)
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People who smoke are a much higher risk
at heart attacks, stroke, infections, and
problems with poor circulation
Treatment for Type 2
Because there are several defects in the
body's chemistry that develop as Type 2
diabetes changes over time, there are many
tools used to treat it. In its earliest
stages, Type 2 diabetes can often be
controlled effectively by becoming more
active and by managing food to reduce the
body's need for insulin. This may involve
promoting a modest amount of weight loss,
controlling and distributing carbohydrate
intake through the day, or both.
Treatment for Type 2
When the disease has progressed to the
point where blood sugars are not
controlled by activity and food
management alone, several types of
oral medications (pills) and/or
insulin may be used singly or in
combination to regain blood glucose
control. Their effectiveness is judged
by testing the blood sugar
periodically throughout the day.
How to take care of yourself
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Once you’ve been diagnosed with Type
2, there are many changes and things
you have to do in order to keep your
blood sugar level steady and healthy.
Those ways are meal planning, weight
loss, and exercise.
Meal Planning
With type 2 Diabetes you have to eat
healthy in order to keep your sugar levels
well maintained. That means:
o Fruits and vegetables (apples, bananas,
broccoli, spinach, etc.)
o Whole grain, cereals ,and bread. (Wheat,
barley, rice and bran.)
o Dairy products (yogurt, skim milk, cream)
o Meat: fish, poultry, eggs, dried beans
Weight-loss
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Obesity increases insulin resistance
and can lead to many other cardiovascular
health problems.
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However the diabetic that carries the
disease and loses weight, will see a
decrease in blood glucose levels and a
decrease in taking oral medication
Exercise
Exercise can take glucose out of the blood
and for energy during or after exercise,
which lowers the glucose level.
Helps delay large blood vessel clots,
which lead to Cardiovascular heart
Disease
All people with diabetes should exercise to
control their blood sugar level, to maintain
Prevention???
Researchers attribute obesity to Type
2 Diabetes
Maintain a healthy body weight
Eat a healthy diet
(fruits, vegetables, bread, milk)
Exercise at least 30 minutes for 4-5 days a
week.
(swimming, walking, basketball, running)

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