Total Participation Techniques

Total Participation
By Persida Himmele and William Himmele
Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Students
Number 3 is the scribe
A: 90-100%
B 80-90%
C: 70-80%
D: Below 70%
Chapter 1:
 Total Participation Techniques are teaching
techniques that allow for all students to
demonstrate, at the same time, active
participation and cognitive engagement in
the topic being studied. (pg. 7)
Chapter 1:
The Purpose for using TPT
 Beach Ball scenario
 Bouncing around
 Not all students are engaged
 Not being “listening objects”
 Lack of engagement leads to other problems
 Low academics
 Behavior issues
 High dropout rates (which leads to crime)
 boredom
Chapter 1:
Easy To Use
 Same amount of planning time
 Not dependent on experience
 Becomes easier the more you use it
 Start off intentionally
 Becomes a habit
 Follows the Common Core
 Higher level thinking
 “digging deeper”
 Math Practice Standards
Chapter 2: Higher Order Thinking
Higher-Order Thinking
High Cognition/Low
High order thinking for SOME
High Cognition/High
All students are participating in higher
order thinking
Low Participation
High Participation
Low Cognition/Low
Teaching is occurring, but learning is not
Low Cognition/High
Learning if forgotten because it is not
linked to anything
Lower-Order Thinking
Chapter 3:
Tools and Supplies
Having supplies ready, makes
the use of TPT’s easier to
manage. See pages 28-29
for a complete list of
 Make a supply box with tools
 Scissors
 Glue
 Laminated paper for a
quick whiteboard
 Flannel square for eraser
 Dry-erase pen
 Appointment clock
 Processing card
 Pencils
~supply box for the whole class
 TPT folder having materials
 Multiple choice cards
 Hundred charts
 A-Z letter strip
Chapter 4
 TPS- Quick easy way for all to
share their thoughts and
reasoning for an answer. video
 Quick-Writes: usually a quick
3 minute reflection (students
can use word banks)
 Quick-Draws: Select a “big
idea” and ask students to
reflect by drawing
 Chalkboard Splash: Where all
students get to put their quick
write or draw on the board at
the same time.
 Thumbs up/down-video
 Processing Card: Paper folded
in half- one side says “Ready
to Share” the other side says
“Still Thinking”
 Similes: Needs to be modeled
and scaffold a lot before
implementing. Good to start
with fill in the blank sentences
in beginning.
 Ranking: Having students
rank events in order. Helps
with synthesizing and
 Numbered Heads
 Thumb Up/Down Voting
Chapter 5: Hold-ups
 Interaction based
 Essential component is
student interaction
 Students reflect on
prompt, hold up answer,
reflect on learning
 Uses questions without
easy answers to get
higher level thinking
 Feels like a game
 Improve participation
 Improve on-task
 Teacher provides more
 Able to use wrong
answers as teachable
 Student come to their
own conclusions by
hearing opposing views
and explaining their
Chapter 5: Examples of Hold-ups
Fact /
Example video
Chapter 5: Examples of Hold-ups
Video example
Chapter 5: Examples of Hold-ups
Number card Hold-ups
*Variety of ways to use in math
*Decks of number cards are used to answer questions
True/Not True Hold-ups
*Makes kids think because very few things are black and white
Multiple Choice Hold-ups
*Great for impromptu selected response hold-ups
*Could be done with clickers as well
*Use A,B,C, D cards
Chapter 6
TPTs Involving Movement
 “The mind can only absorb what the seat can endure.” –Bill Himmele’s
(the author) father
 There should be some form of movement in every lesson we teach.
 The need for movement is even more important for boys than girls.
 Line-ups; Inside Outside Circles
 Three 3’s in a Row
 Networking Sessions
 Categorizing and Sorting
 Appointment Agendas
 Bounce Cards
 Mouth it, Air-Write it, or Show me
 Acting it Out, Roles Playing, and Concept Charades
 Simulations
 Cut and Pastes
 TPTs During Read Alouds
Line-Ups and Inside-Outside Circles
 A Line-Up is a fun activity that allows students to move
around the room sharing answers with different
 Students stand in 2 parallel lines (or concentric circles)
and face each other. Students respond to a prompt given
by the teacher. Students talk over prompt and answer.
 Ring bell and students will thank their partner and move
to the next person.
 Use questions and prompts that require discussion and
Three 3’s in a Row
 This is an activity like Bingo; students answer questions
in boxes, then ask their classmates for feedback.
 It can be used as a quick assessment of what students
have learned.
 It leads to great conversations.
 Make sure your questions ensure higher-order thinking.
 1. Prepare nine questions
 2. Students walk around asking peers to explain one answer
 3. Students summarize peers response in the box
 4. Students find another peer and repeat
 5. Go over as a class
 Caution- Only the owner of the paper writes on the paper.
TPT’s during a Read-Aloud
 Use movement to describe and understand new
vocabulary in a read-aloud.
 Students act out their prediction.
 Students act out what happened in the story.
Chapter 7: Note-Taking and
Concept Analysis
 Note-Taking = Effective
 Students struggle (summarization skills/writing
verbatim/too much/too little)
 Non-stop stand and deliver = bad
 We want to transition our students from “listening
objects” to students that understand and analyze
Confer, Compare, and Clarify
 Confer = 1 sentence summary (TPS)
 Compare = Students read each other’s notes
 Clarify = students record questions
 Partners become groups
 Continue un-clarified questions in a Chalkboard Splash
or index cards for later
 Address questions before moving on
Graphic Organizers and Prepared
 In other words…Guided Notes
 Unit Packets with premade organizers for specific tasks
as well as blank organizers to be used willy-nilly
 Good way to get everyone engaged very quickly
 Road map for lessons/units
Anticipatory Guides
 In other words…Advanced Organizers
 True/False statements
 Pre-instruction set; students make predictions; based on
prior knowledge
 Pair-Share responses and rationales
 Debrief with Thumb Up/Down Votes
 Post-instruction set; students answer based on
 Compare to pre-instruction set and see if/how their
knowledge changed
Picture Notes
Picture Pause 1
Picture Pause 2
Picture Pause 3
The Big Picture
Other Note-Taking Ideas
 3-Sentence Wrap-Up
 Lecture T Chart
 A-Z Sentence Summaries
 Pause, Star, Rank (think and reflect on notes)
 Key-Word Dance
 Debate Team Carousel
 Technology-Based TPTs
 Blogging
 Clickers
Chapter 8
 TPTs make great formative assessments.
 Formative assessments are informed judgments that
teachers gather to help the student progress
 affect learning because they help evaluate students’
knowledge then teachers adjust their teaching.
 Formatives effect teaching, but they result in the
formation of new learning.
 Formatives cause new learning to take shape.
 This types of assessment can have powerful positive
results on student learning because teacher behavior
becomes informed and instruction becomes targeted.
More facts about Formatives
 Engages students in taking ownership of their own
 Teachers are essential because we decide what are the
needs of the student
 What does formatives have to do with TPTs?
TPTs can be formatives because they affect learning by
giving teachers data.
TPTs and Expectations
 Change the way you teach and what you expect
because you will know what your student are able
to accomplish
 Teachers can have higher academic expectations
 Students will rise to the challenge
Application of TPTs as Formatives
 Chalkboard Splash: All students write their answers
to a prompt then analyze similarities and differences
of everyone’s responses
 This technique can be a formative because the
teacher can determine from each student’s response
if the class can move on or they need more time
with the concept
 The teacher can also see any misunderstandings of
the class any point in the lesson
Application of TPTs as Formatives
 Hold ups: Number card, True/False/Multiple Choice
 We learned that hold-ups are only meaningful if the
students interact, analyze, debate, and defend their
 Unlike the Chalkboard Splash, the teacher can see which
student did not understand the concept
 We could get the same information from the
independent practice. This is a way to get evaluative
information through student participation
Last Two TPTs and Formatives
 Quick writes/Quick Draws lets the teacher know the level
of each student (literal/concrete, inferential, abstract)
 One Liner wall is a wall of one sentence each student has
written. This is a good formative just like the quick
write/quick draws because the level of each student is
apparent in the one sentence.
 Can guide students to more higher order thinking because
the students are learning from peers who are at that level
 A teacher can also show a student’s progression through
the year through one liners.
• You have to plan TPT in your everyday lessons
• Get comfortable with the idea that students will be taking
over some over the communication (teachers talk less=
students talking more
• Build a classroom environment that establishes trust &
• Honor student differences & promote peer acceptance
• Best thing about TPT: no longer guessing game for who is
learning; you observe growth as it is happening
• Celebrate learning along side your students as it is
Appreciating Student Differences
* To get the very
best from
students they
need to know they
are free to think &
* Using TPT we get to
see the differences in
our students
- The quite ones
- Great ideas/ deep thinkers
Fostering Student Collaboration
Nothing is
more valuable
than students
talking to
each other!!!
 Choose own group
 Heterogeneous
 Strategically
o Trust them to make their
own groups; more willing to
share & collaborate
o Activity determines grouping
Peer Rejection & Peer Acceptance
 Students need to feel safe to participate & share
 They all have unique talents
 Using the
ripple effect
to build a safe environment
1. Quick draw; Quick write; etc
2. First ripple: when you ask them to share with
3. Outer ripple: ask pairs to join; bounce ideas off
each other
 Shared & had success with peers they feel safe
to share with whole class & teachers
 Good for: Socially awkward group; Special
Needs; ELL
Building Confidence/ Building Trust
* Teacher is Key
 Use body language and
words that show them you
o Trust is earned: Slow
down and analyze what
they need
Post these:
• I trust You!
• I trust that you want to learn
• I trust that you have amazing things to share, and I’m going
to shape opportunities so you can share them
• I trust that you can learn from each other
• I trust that our collective differences make us all a bit smarter
• I trust that if you trust yourself, the best in you will come out
Walking around & Follow through
• TPT emphasizes that you get evidence of
active participation
• Walk around
• Engage students
• Respond to key words: content based
• Redirect off task students by asking on topic
• Ask them to “Tell you more”
• Explain themselves
• Understand where went wrong
• Follow reasoning
• Scaffold backward: see error in thinking

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