Sparse representation for face

Report
Partial Face Recognition
S. Liao, A. K. Jain, and S. Z. Li, "Partial Face Recognition: Alignment-Free
Approach", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol.
35, No. 5, pp. 1193-1205, May 2013, doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2012.191
Cooperative Face Recognition
• People stand in front of a camera with good
illumination conditions.
• Border pass, access control, attendance, etc.
Unconstrained Face Recognition
• Images are captured with less user
cooperation, in more challenging conditions
• Video surveillance, hand held system, etc.
Partial Faces in Unconstrained
Environments
Face Recognition and the London Riots
Summer 2011
Widespread looting and rioting:
FR lead to many arrests:
Yet, many suspects still unable to
be identified by COTS FRS:
Extensive CCTV Network:
Face Detection in a Crowd
OpenCV
Face
Detector
PittPatt-5
Face Detector
Normalized
PixelViola-Jones
Difference
(NPD)
Face Detector
Unconstrained Face Recognition
• Problem:
– Recognize an arbitrary face image captured in
unconstrained environment
• Possible areas for improvement:
–
–
–
–
Face detection?
Alignment?
Feature representation?
Classification?
• Importance:
– Recognize a suspect in crowd
– Identify a face from its partial image
Alignment Free
Partial Face Recognition (PFR)
• Proposed alignment-free method: MKD-SRC
Alignment Free
Partial Face Recognition (PFR)
• Multi Keypoint Descriptors (MKD)
– Each image is described by a set of
keypoints and descriptors (e.g. SIFT):
• Keypoints: p1, p2, …, pk
• Descriptors: d1, d2, …, dk
– The number of descriptors, k, may be
different from image to image
Alignment Free
Partial Face Recognition (PFR)
Sparse Representation Classification
(SRC) based on MKD
• Descriptors from the same class c can be
viewed as a sub-dictionary:
• Combining sub-dictionaries:
• For each descriptor yi of
in a probe image, solve
• Determine the identity of the probe image by
SRC:
Sparse Representation Classification
(SRC) based on MKD
An Example Solution
Quincy Delight Jones
Morgan Freeman
• MKD-SRC is more discriminant for PFR
• The horizontal axis represents the index of the gallery
keypoint descriptors
• The vertical axis denotes the coefficient strength, as
computed by
Large Scale Partial Face Recognition
• In the dictionary, the number of atoms, K, can be of
the order of millions
• Fast atom filtering:
(*)
For each yi, we filter out only T (T<<K) atoms according
to the top T largest values in ci, resulting in a small subdictionary.
• The computation of Eq. (*) is linear w.r.t. K, the
selection of the largest T values can be done in O(K),
thus the proposed fast atom filtering scales linearly
w.r.t. K, while the remaining computation of l1
minimization takes a constant time.
Effects of the Fast Atom Filtering
• A subset of FRGCv2, with 1,398 gallery images
and 466 probe images, resulting in K=111,643 for
the dictionary.
Keypoint Descriptors
• Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)
– Advantage: promising results, efficient to compute
– Disadvantage: limited number of keypoints (~80), not
affine invariant
• Gabor Ternary Pattern (GTP) descriptor
– Adopts edge based affine invariant keypoint detector
called CanAff, which provides sufficient number of
keypoints (~800) for PFR
– Robust to illumination variations and noises
– Even with fast atom filtering, run time is O(n2) with
keypoints per image
• 10 times more keypoints, 100 times slower
Keypoint Descriptors
SIFT
(37)
GTP
(first 150 of 571)
GTP Descriptor
Keypoint Region Normalization
• Normalize the detected region to 40x40 pixels
• Clipped Z-Score normalization:
– Normalize the pixel values to [0,1]
– Reduce the influence of illumination variation
– Reduce the influence of extreme pixel values
Gabor Filters
• Odd Gabor filters with small scale, 4 orientations
– Imaginary part of Gabor filters, sensitive to edges and
their locations.
– Scale 0, 5x5 support area, 0º, 45º, 90º, 135º
Local Ternary Pattern
• Encode the responses of the 4 Gabor filters
– Local structure about the responses of Gabor
filters in 4 orientations
4 orientations
– Examples of some local structures encoded
2201
2011
0222
Building the descriptor
• Calculate the histogram of local ternary
patterns (34 bins) over each grid cell, and
concatenate them to form a 1,296 element
vector
• Transform by a sigmoid function ( tanh(20x) )
– Reduce the influence of extreme values
• Reduce the dimension to 128 by PCA
GTP Descriptor
Local patch of 40x40 pixels
4x4 grid cells
34 bins for each cell
1296 bins in total
PCA to 128 dims
Labeled Faces in the Wild
1
(LFW)
• Real faces from the internet, most with nonfrontal views or occlusion
• 13,233 images of 5,749 subjects
1
http://vis-www.cs.umass.edu/lfw/
Experiments on LFW
• MKD-SRC performs better than FaceVACS, but is not as
good as PittPatt
• Fusion of MKD-SRC & PittPatt improves performance
Experiments on LFW
Face image pairs that can be correctly recognized by
MKD-SRC but not by PittPatt at FAR=1%
Experiment on PubFig
2
Database
• Large-scale open-set identification
• Gallery: 5,083 full frontal faces
• Probe:
– 817 partial faces (belong to gallery) with large pose
variation or occlusion
– 7,210 faces as impostors (do not belong to gallery)
2 http://www.cs.columbia.edu/CAVE/databases/pubfig/
Experiment on PubFig Database
• Proposed MKD-SRC method is better than two
commercial SDKs, FaceVACS and PittPatt
Synthetic Partial Face Image
Generation
 Rotate images; degree of
rotation randomly drawn
from a normal distribution
(mean 0, std. dev. 10º)
 Sample width and height for
the patch, drawn from a
uniform distribution from
50-100% of original size
 Sample a starting position
for the patch
 Randomly rescale the patch
5/28/2013
Original
(size reduced for
display)
Original size
patch
Rotated
(size reduced for
display)
Rescaled
patch
29
FRGC+ Dataset
• Open set recognition
• FRGC dataset
• Gallery:
– 466 FRGC Images
– 10,000 PCSO Images
• Probe
– A. 15,562 FRGC partial faces
(matching the FRGC subjects in
gallery)
– B. 10,000 PCSO partial faces
(not matching any gallery
subjects)
• Average time per probe image
~1 second vs. 10,466 image
gallery
• Pittpatt 5.2 fails to enroll ~50%
of the partial faces
Experiment on MOBIO database3
• Videos captured by mobile phone from six
universities/institutes in Europe
• 4,880 videos of 61 subjects for verification
Gallery (top) and probe (bottom)
3 http://www.idiap.ch/dataset/mobio
Experiment on MOBIO database
A. Female
B. Male
32
Experiment on the Mobile dataset
• Unconstrained face images with a mobile phone
– Pose, illumination, expression, occlusion or invisible
parts
• Gallery images of 14 subjects plus additional
1,000 background subjects; one image/subject
• Probe: 168 mobile phone images of 14 subjects,
with additional 1,000 impostors
• Open-set (watch-list) identification experiment
Experiment on the Mobile dataset
PittPatt cannot be applied because the probe faces cannot be aligned
Other Keypoint Matching Methods
• Keypoint based representations are naturally
variable size
• The previously discussed method reconstructs
each probe keypoint from the gallery using
SRC
• Other options:
– Bag of words methods – fixed sized representation
over a dictionary
– Modified Hausdorff Distance – apply a general
distance metric to sets of points
Modified Hausdorff Distance
• Given a distance metric d, and 2 sets of
keypoints A and B find:
– D(A,B) = mean(mina in A(d(a,B)))
• Compute the min distance from each keypoint in A to a
keypoint in B, average the results over all keypoints in A
• D(A,B) ≠ D(B,A)
– MHD(A,B) = max(D(A,B), D(B,A))
• We calculate all probe to gallery keypoint
distances for the atom filtering step, so
computing MHD is not costly
Summary
• Face recognition based on applying SRC to
local keypoint descriptors
• Outperformed by other methods for mugshot
style images, but can be used even when faces
cannot be aligned
– E.g. only part of the face is available, or face/eye
detection fail

similar documents