INSPIRING MIDDLE SCHOOLERS INTO INFORMATION BOOKS John T. Guthrie Jennifer McPeake University of Maryland OVERVIEW Maryland project Challenges in middle school Motivations of adolescent readers CORI motivation practices Impacts on students Professional development MARYLAND PROJECT St. Mary’s County-University of Maryland Seventh grade-4 schools-22 teachers-1200 students Question- Can we increase skill and will in reading information books? Interview-260 students Questionnaires 1200 students (September, April, June) R/LA Instruction-6 weeks; 3 years Struggling reader instruction-6 weeks; 2 years MARYLAND PROJECT PEOPLE Dr. Michael Martirano, Superintendent Ms. Linda Dudderer, Chief Academic Officer Ms. Liz Cooper, K-12 R/LA Coordinator Teachers and Principals Administrative Staff Dr. John T. Guthrie, Principal Investigator Ms. Jennifer McPeake, Curriculum Director Ms. Mary Blakely, Education Director Dr. Patricia Richardson, Policy Advisor Graduate and Undergraduate students CHALLENGES IN MIDDLE SCHOOL INFORMATION BOOK READING 1. 2. PROFICIENCY PROBLEMS 1. Word recognition 2. Literal comprehension (sentences) 3. Inferencing 4. Complex passage comprehension CHALLENGES IN MIDDLE SCHOOL INFORMATION BOOK READING 1.PROFICIENCY 2.PROBLEMS 1. Word recognition 2. Literal comprehension 3. Inferencing 4. Complex passage comprehension 32% 03% 07% 14% 44% MOTIVATION CHALLENGES ‘Information books are boring.’ 80% ‘I don’t want to read this.’ 77% ‘I read them as little as possible.’ 57% ‘I try to get out of reading them.’ 44% INTERVIEW WITH AN AVOIDANT READER I: Can you give an example of a school reading assignment that you and your friends avoided? S: Well, we tried to avoid this reading assignment -The Wall. I: Ok. Can you think of another example of a reading assignment that you and your friends tried to avoid? S: Uh-uh. Because after that we failed the class. MOTIVATIONS FOR READING INFORMATION TEXT Dedication (effort, time, persistence) Self confidence (I can read this) Valuing (knowing now; future) Interest (enjoyment) KAELYN’S STORY KAELYN’S STORY 13 years old - 7th grade Attached to her phone - any phone Loathes her braces - 3 months to go! Flew through elementary school - memorizing Answers more teacher questions than anyone Never misses homework Prides herself on being the best student Gifted in basketball, soccer, and gymnastics Facebook: “I don’t like to read.” DEDICATED AND DISINTERESTED CECILIA: WHAT IS BEST ABOUT LEARNING AT WHITNEY? Basically all the academic courses in themselves? Unimportant. They won’t stick with you the rest of your life. What is the most important is the discipline you have to learn when your teachers force you to do this assignment or read that book; it’s the fact that you had to do it that will be most important in college because when your Mom and Dad are not there, you will have to lock and chain your self to the work. PROFILES OF MOTIVATIONS AND ACHIEVEMENT Interest High—Interested Dedication High –Dedicated May read a lot Commitment May achieve to reading highly Very likely to Low—Disinterested achieve May read under Low– Avoidant coercion Does not read May achieve Cannot moderately achieve PROFILES IN MIDDLE SCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MS-profile MS-Ach. MS-% of Ss DedicatedDisinterested 8.8 23 DedicatedInterested 8.1 AvoidantDisinterested AvoidantInterested ES-profile ES-Ach. ES- % of Ss DedicatedInterested 7.1 37 20 AvoidantInterested 5.1 15 8.1 42 DedicatedDisinterested 4.2 14 4.6 07 AvoidantDisinterested 4.1 33 CONCEPT-ORIENTED READING INSTRUCTION (CORI) Interest (enjoyment) Relevance Self-efficacy (belief ) Success Value (importance) Awareness of reading Social interaction (peers) Collaboration Ownership (autonomy) Choice Thematic units Mastery goals (knowledge) OVERVIEW: CORI SNAPSHOT CORI Goal Extended engaged reading in the classroom daily Teaching Goals: Reading comprehension strategies Inferencing, Summarizing, Concept Mapping Science Content Goals: Ecology Plant and animal survival and interdependencies; symbiotic interactions: mutualism, parasitism, commensalism Motivation Support Knowledge goals for reading, observational experiences, interesting texts, choices about learning, collaboration with classmates OVERALL FRAMEWORK – ECOLOGY UNIT ECOLOGY UNIT BOOK COLLECTION WEEK 1 FRAMEWORK CORI: FLOW OF INSTRUCTION Science Goals - or - Fluency (15 min) Comprehension Instruction Whole Class (30-0 min) Guided Reading (30 – 60 min) Strategy Practice Writing Independent Rdg. (15 min) A DAY IN CORI WEEK 1, LESSON 2 Motivation – Success Science Goals (15 min): How does predation contribute to balance in an ecosystem? Students observe video Importance of Having Predators and take notes. Students share their notes and ideas with a peer and write new ideas learned from discussion. Students discuss ideas whole class. Teacher posts 2 - 3 key ideas about predation. COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION WHOLE CLASS (30 MIN) Students connect video observation to reading Teacher models inferencing using the Inferencing Guide CORI INFERENCING GUIDE GUIDED READING (30 MIN) Guided practice of the strategy with leveled text Texts relate to conceptual theme ecology , guiding question for the day, and video observation Students work with a partner Teacher rotates, scaffolds reading strategy and motivation Each student completes chart: My Inferences: Animal Survival in Ecosystems ON-GRADE LEVEL TEXT STRUGGLING READER TEXT ADVANCED READER TEXT INFERENCING: STUDENT SAMPLE STRATEGY FEEDBACK INDEPENDENT READING Students (15 MIN) preview novels for independent reading Students select a book and read for enjoyment Record pages read in reading log WEEK 2 Reading Strategy: Summarizing Motivation: Choice Science Content: Plant Survival in Ecosystems WEEKS 3 AND 4 Reading Strategy: Concept mapping Motivations: Collaboration, conceptual theme Science Content: Plant and animal interdependencies, symbiosis WEEK 5 Reading Strategy: Review of strategies Motivations: Relevance Science Content: Symbiosis - Parasitism WEEK 6: CULMINATING ACTIVITY Reading Strategy: Integration of Strategies Motivations: Multiple motivations Science Content: Diversity of Life TRIAL RUN St. Mary’s County Public Schools 1150 Grade 7 students Sept. – March (Traditional R/LA) April – June (6 weeks CORI) Assessments September, April, June on Information Text Comprehension, Motivation, Instruction CORI Effects on Information Text Comprehension 40 Percent Correct – 30 35 30 25 SpEd 20 R/LA Honors 15 10 5 0 Sept Nov Jan Mar May June CONCLUSIONS CORI rate of learning to comprehend information text was higher. R/LA 6.47 factor sig. Spec. Ed. 13.44 factor sig. Honors 1.74 factor ns. CORI Effects on Reading Motivations Intrinsic Mot. 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 AA 0.2 EA 0.1 0 Sept April Time Points June Value. CORI Effects on Reading Motivations 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 AA EA Sept April Time Points June CONCLUSIONS CORI increased the strengths of four affirming motivations for reading more than for R/LA. The benefits were equally strong for African American students as for European American students. CORI Effects on Reading Motivations 0.9 Avoidance 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 AA 0.3 EA 0.2 0.1 0 Sept April Time Points June Perceived Difficulty CORI Effects on Reading Motivations 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 AA 0.15 EA 0.1 0.05 0 Sept April Time Points June CONCLUSIONS CORI decreased the strengths of four undermining motivations for reading more than for R/LA. The benefits were equally strong for African American students as for European American students. INSPIRING DEDICATION: TEACHER-STUDENT RELATIONSHIP Teacher High expectations (belief in students’ capacity to learn Reading/Language Arts) Commitment (Teachers caring about students’ personal life and learning in R/LA) Student Dedication to reading, writing, course work (effort, time, persistence) Learning to potential (realistic cognitive gains) TEACHING PRACTICES FOSTERING DEDICATION Students Teacher Assuring Creating Success Relevance Building Awareness Enabling Collaboration Affording Choices Sustaining Thematic Units CECILIA: WHAT I WOULD NEVER CHANGE In Whitney, people were interested in who I was. They showed me I wasn’t worthless, and showed me that it’s possible to trust unconditionally. Whitney gave me something that nowhere else has truly given me: acceptance.