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Classification
= the grouping of
objects or organisms
based on a set of
criteria.
TAXONOMY
= A branch of biology
that groups and names
organisms.
I. History
A. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
 Greek philosopher
 1st method of classification
•2 groups: plants & animals
I. History
B. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
 Swedish botanist
 System we still use today
 Binomial nomenclature (2 word
naming system)
Every living organism has a genus
name and a species name!
Genus & Species Name:

Genus species:
• scientific name Ex: Homo sapiens
ocommon name Ex: = human beings
• scientific name Ex: Acinonyx jubatus
ocommon name Ex: Cheetah
Genus & Species Name:

Writing scientific names (genus & species):
• The genus name is capitalized; the
species name is lowercase
• Both genus and species names are always:
oUnderlined or Italicized
II. Why are living things organized?

Provides logic and organization

Universal understanding-useful tool

Important to economy- discoveries!
oNew sources of lumber,
medicines, energy, etc…
III. How are living things classified?
A. Taxa- series of categories, each one larger
than the previous one
Species (only one)
Genus
Family
Order
Class
Phylum
Kingdom
Domain(Very Broad Category)
III. How are living things classified?
B. Classified by similarities in:
1. Developmental stages
2. Biochemical analysis (DNA)
3. Behavioral patterns
IV. DOMAINS:

Organisms are classified into domains
according to cell type and structure

Organisms are classified into kingdoms
according to cell type, structure, and
nutrition
2 Cell Types:
Eukaryotic cells =
have membrane-bound
nucleus and organelles;
usually more complex
than prokaryotic cells
2) Prokaryotic cells =
does NOT have a
nucleus or other
membrane-bound
organelles
1)
3 Domains:
Bacteria
2) Archea (pronounced- ar KEE uh)
3) Eukarya
1)
A. Bacteria



Prokaryotes
Cell walls contain peptidoglycan (polymer
of sugars)
Contains Kingdom Bacteria
E. coli
B. Archea
More ancient than bacteria
 Prokaryotes
 Cell walls DO NOT contain peptidoglycan
 Live in extreme environments
• Boiling hot springs, salty latkes, thermal
vents on the oceans’ floors, mud of
marshes where there is NO oxygen

C. Eukarya
 Eukaryotes
 Contains
Kingdom Protists,
Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plants,
Kingdom Animals
V.THE SIX KINGDOMS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
BACTERIA
ARCHAEA
PROTISTS
FUNGI
PLANTS
ANIMALS
Flow Chart of Domains & Kingdoms:
3 Domains
6 Kingdoms
Bacteria
Bacteria
Archaea
Archaea
Protists
Eukarya
Plants
Fungi
Animals
A. BACTERIA
Cell type –prokaryote
 Cell walls with
peptidoglycan
 Unicellular
 Autotroph (organism that
makes their own food) or
heterotroph (organism that
gets its nutrients by feeding
on other organisms)

BACTERIA (continued)

Common bacteria
• Ex: bacteria you would find on your
skin
• Ex: streptococcus bacteria causes
strep throat
• Ex: E. coli
Streptococcus
E. Coli
B. ARCHAEA
Cell type –prokaryote
 Cell walls DO NOT contain
peptidoglycan
 Unicellular
 Autotroph or heterotroph

Hot Springs
Deep Sea Vents
C. PROTISTS
Most diverse group
 Cell type – eukaryote
 Unicellular and multicellular
 Some plant-like, animal-like and
fungus-like
 DO NOT have organs
 Usually live in moist environments
 Ex: paramecium, slime mold,
kelps

C. FUNGI
Cell type – eukaryote
 Most multicellular
 Heterotrophic - absorb nutrients
obtained by decomposing dead
organisms and wastes in
environment
 Cell walls with chitin (polymer)
 Ex: mushrooms, molds

D. PLANTS
Cell type – eukaryote
 Multicellular
 Photosynthetic (autotrophs)
 Most have cellulose in their cell
walls
 Tissues organized into organs
(roots, stems, leaves)

E. ANIMALS
Cell type – eukaryote
 Multicellular
 Consumers that eat and digest
other organisms for food
 No cell walls
 Have tissues organized into complex

organ systems
Kingdom Characteristics
Domain
Kingdom
Cell Type
Cell
Walls
Number
of Cells
Nutrition
Bacteria
Archaea
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Protists
Prokaryotic
Contains
peptidoglycan
Plants
Animals
Eukaryotic
Does NOT
Some with
contain
peptidoglycan cellulose
Unicellular
Fungi
Chitin
Unicellular
Most
&
Multicellul
Multicellular
ar
Autotroph or heterotroph
Cellulose
NO Cell
walls
Multicellular
Heterotroph Autotroph Heterotroph

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