French Revolution PowerPoint

Report
French
Revolution &
Napoleon
Queen Marie Antoinette, King Louis XVI
The Eve of Revolution
• 1789
• French Old Order/Three Estates
1. Clergy
2. Nobility
3. Everyone else
Enlightenment Ideas
• Questioning inequalities of Old
Regime
• Third Estate calls for change
France’s Problems
• 1. Financial troubles
– Deficit spending
– National debt from war/extravagances
• 2. Economic Reforms
– Need for taxing 1st and 2nd
• 3. Refusal to call Estates-General
Fixing the Problems…maybe
• Louis XVI calls Estates-General to
meet
– Preparing cahiers
• May-June 1789
– 3rd declares themselves as National
Assembly
– Tennis Court Oath
TENNIS COURT OATH
Storming the Bastille
• July 14, 1789
• 800 Parisians gather around Bastille
• Bastille Day
– French
Independence
Day
S2: The French Revolution
Unfolds
• “Great Fear”
• Marquis de Lafayette
– U.S.
– Natl Guard
National Assembly
• Ends their own privileges
– “Feudalism is abolished!”
• Declaration of the Rights of Man and
the Citizen
– Similar to the ____
– UH….women?
• Liberte, Equalite, Fraternite!
Women in Versailles
• BREAD!
• Marie Antoinette…GRR!!!!
• Versailles Tuileries
National Assembly
• Lots of debt take over Church
lands!
• Church under state control conflict
• Constitution of 1791 limited
monarchy instead of absolute,
reformed laws, collect taxes,
separation of Church and state,
equality for male citz.
RUN!!!
• Louis and Marie attempt to…escape.
Radicals Take Over
• Emigres nobles, clergy who fled
– Thus, European rulers are NOT supportive
– Enlightenment ideas?
• National Assembly becomes Legislative
Assembly
– Jacobins (middle class)
• Sans-culottes- radicals who wanted a
republic
Radicals Take Over
• Jacobins want REVOLUTION!
• Declare war on
Prussia, Austria,
Britain, etc.
S3: Radical Days of the
Revolution
• 1793 Radical Phase
• French troops decimated by Prussian
forces, some royalists become
emigres
• Radicals take control of the L.A.
– Becomes National Convention
• Extends suffrage
Radical France
• Votes to abolish the monarchy
• Establish French Republic
• Louis XVI tried by the Convention
and put to death
– Vote! Every vote counts…
– January 1793
– October 1793
The French Republic
• Committee of Public Safety
– Massive tax on ALL for war
– Trials and executions
– Crushing peasant revolts
The Reign of Terror
• Maximilien Robespierre “The
Incorruptible”
– Favored by Jacobins, sans-culouttes
– “Liberty cannot be secured unless
criminals lose their heads”
– Architect of the Reign of Terror
• 1793-1794
• Guillotine
Stage 3 Revolution
• 3rd Constitution by the moderates
• Moderates hold power from 17951799
• Sets up the Directory
• Problems:
Napoleon Bonaparte
• Politicians planned to use him…he
outwits them all!
• Nationalism
S4: The Age of Napoleon
• 1799-1815
• Favors radicals and a republic
• Victorious general (hid losses)
politics
• Ends Directory, begins Consulate
– First Consul
• 1804- Emperor of the French!
– Democratic despotism
Napoleon’s Reforms
•
•
•
•
Controls prices, public works projects
Concordat of 1801
Emigres need to oath of loyalty
Napoleonic Code
– Women lost rights
– Male dominated family
– Religious tolerance
– Ends serfdom
– Careers based on talent, merit
Napoleon’s Empire
– 1812 farthest extent
• Map of Europe is redrawn!
• Abolished Holy Roman Empire
• Britain evades Napoleon through sea
power
– Battle of Trafalgar
– Continental System
Napoleon’s Downfall
• Nationalism beats Napoleon
RUSSIA 1812
• Tsar Alexander I
– Scorched earth policy
• Napoleon’s Grand Army
– 1000 mile retreat
Napoleon’s Defeat
• Due to defeat, new alliance:
– Prussia, Russia, Austria, Britain
– Defeats Napoleon in 1813
• Napoleon will abdicate
– Sent to Elba
– Louis XVIII is now King
– 1815…he’s baaaaaaaaaaaaack….
Napoleon’s Defeat II
• Battle of Waterloo (Belgium)– Britain’s Duke of Wellington
– Abdicates again to St. Helena
•
•
•
•
Napoleon dies in 1821
HRE becomes Germany
Rise of nationalism
Sold LA Territory
End of the War
• Congress of Vienna- meeting to
decide the end…
– Main goal is a lasting peace
– Protect monarchies
– Surrounds France with strong countries
– Establish the principle of legitimacy
• Quadruple Alliance
– PRAB
End of the War
• Concert of Europe
– Powers meet periodically to discuss
problems facing Europe
– No European wars for 100 years!
War ended in 1814…in one hundred
years….
Images Used
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French Revolution Charts:
http://westerncivguides.umwblogs.org/files/2011/11/causes_french_revolution3.gif
Guillotine: http://content.answcdn.com/main/content/img/getty/7/9/2695379.jpg
Marie Antoinette: http://www.history.com/images/media/slideshow/frenchrevolution/marie-antoinette.jpg
King Louis xvi:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Ludvig_XVI_av_Frankrike_portr
%C3%A4tterad_av_AF_Callet.jpg
Pyramid: http://relay-ofrevolutions.wikispaces.com/file/view/3_Estates_Pyramid_annielo822.png/158885463/
480x385/3_Estates_Pyramid_annielo822.png
Tennis Court Oath: http://myweb.rollins.edu/jsiry/David_Jeu_de_Paume.jpg
Stormig of Bastille: http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/98/90498-004CEB880DC.jpg
Marquis Lafayette:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Gilbert_du_Motier_Marquis_de
_Lafayette.PNG
Louis XVI coins: http://img.ma-shops.com/almanumis/pic/combined697.jpg
Napoleon:
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/docroot/dulcinea/fd_images/features/profiles/b/nap
oleon-bonaparte/features/0/image.jpg
Google Maps: www.google.com/maps

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