Chapter 5 - Bakersfield College

Report
Inter-Act,
th
13
Edition
Chapter 5
Nonverbal
1
Chapter Objectives
Describe the characteristics and functions of
nonverbal messages
 Identify the types of behaviors, body motions,
nonverbal sounds, spatial cues, and selfpresentation cues
 Discuss how types of nonverbal messages vary
with culture and gender
 Explain ways to improve nonverbal
communication

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Verbal
Communication

Spoken or written
words
Nonverbal
Communication
(as much as
65%)

Bodily actions and vocal
qualities that support,
modify, or contradict
accompanying verbal
messages
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Characteristics of Nonverbal
Communication

Intentional or unintentional

Primary

Ambiguous

Continuous

Multichanneled
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Functions of Nonverbal
Communication

To provide information

To regulate interaction

To express or hide emotion and affect

To present an image

To express status, power, and control
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Types of Nonverbal Communication

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

Body language
Paralanguage
Spatial usage
Self-presentation
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Body Language: Kinesics

Eye contact

Facial expressions
◦ Do you think you could spot them in everyday
conversation? How could you use this information to affect
your conversations with others?

Gesture

Posture

Touch
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Paralanguage



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Pitch
Volume
Rate
Quality
Intonation
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Vocal Interferences
Extraneous sounds or words that
interrupt fluent speech:
◦ “uh,” “um”
◦ “you know,” “like”
 Place markers
 Fillers

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Spatial Usage
 Personal space: the space that surrounds a person,
moves with that person, and changes with the
situation as well as moment to moment
◦ Intimate distance: up to 18”
◦ Personal distance: 18”-4’
◦ Social distance: 4’-12’
◦ Public distance: more than 12’
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Spatial Use

Acoustic space: area over which your voice or
other sounds can be comfortably heard

Territory: space over which we claim ownership

Artifacts: objects we use to adorn our territory
and communicate about our space
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Color Influences Communication
Yellow cheers
and
elevates moods
Red excites
and
stimulates
In some
cultures
black suggests
mourning
Blue comforts
and
soothes
In some
cultures
white suggests
purity
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Self-Presentation Cues

Physical Appearance

Use of Time

Use of Smells and Scents
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Cultural and Gender Variations
Body Language
◦ Eye contact, Facial expressions,
Gestures, Touch
 Paralanguage
 Spatial Usage
 Self-presentation

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What does this symbol mean to you?





In the United States it is a
symbol for good job
In Germany the number one
In Japan the number five
In Ghana an insult
In Malaysia the thumb is used to
point rather than a finger
-Atlantic Committee for the Olympic Games
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Improving Nonverbal Sending Skills
•Be mindful of your nonverbal behavior.
•Adapt nonverbal behaviors to your purpose.
•Adapt nonverbal behaviors to the situation.
•Align nonverbal and verbal communication.
•Make sure nonverbal cues do not distract
from your message.
•Eliminate distracting nonverbal behaviors.
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Improving Nonverbal Interpretation
Skills
• Be mindful that most nonverbal cues do not
have set meanings.
• Recognize culture, gender, and other
diversity when interpreting nonverbal cues.
• Pay attention to all of the nonverbal cues and
their relationship to the verbal message.
• Use the skill of perception checking.
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Homework

How can you improve your nonverbal
behavior? Identify a problem you have
with nonverbal message cues. Select a
goal and write a communication
improvement plan. See your Assignment
Rubric!!!
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