Where do all the oceanographers go? Career paths in physical oceanography And is there a difference between men and women With Lisa Gerber, Susan Lozier , Renellys Perez, Amelia Shevenell, Laurie Sindlinger, Mark Warner What kind of data is available? • NSF 2009: survey of doctorate recipients – – Physical Scientists Geoscientists • NSF 2008: doctorate completion surveys – Oceanographers • O’Connell and Holmes (two papers) – Geoscientists – Oceanographers • MPOWIR (Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase Retention) data – – Current makeup of PO faculty Survey of PO doctorate recipients • 1999-2009 Survey of UW Oceanography Graduate Program What is the job distribution of PO PhDs? MPOWIR data • Faculty job distribution at 17 institutions in 2006 (WHOI, RSMAS, URI, UW, SIO, OSU, Lamont, FSU, NC State, Texas A&M, Rutgers, Old Dominion, UH, NC State, U of Alaska, U of Maine, UNC) – 238 men and 42 women • PO PhDs from 6 Institutions since 1980 (UW, SIO, OSU, WHOI, RSMAS, URI) – – – – – 257 men, 92 women Half of total 2001-2005 graduates from 17 institutions Found current position from internet searches (Fall 2009) All but 10 men and one woman were found Removed post-doctoral fellows Doctorate recipients: geosciences vs. other physical sciences by employment sector 60 50 40 30 Physical Sciences 20 10 0 Earth Atmos/Ocean Sciences Data taken from: NSF 2009 (note response rate 78%) Geosciences: Earth/Atmospheric/Ocean Sciences Physical Sciences: Astronomy/Astrophysics, Chemistry except biochemistry, Earth/Atmospheric/Ocean Sciences, Physics Percentage in job types at academic institutions in PO (2006): 55% in tenure track, 45% in research track (280 counted) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Assistant Prof Associate Full ProfessorRes. Assistant Res. Prof Associate Res. Full Institutions: WHOI, RSMAS, URI, UW, SIO, OSU, Lamont, FSU, NC State, Texas A&M, Rutgers, Old Dominion, UH, NC State, U of Alaska, U of Maine, UNC, 42 women and 238 men, MPOWIR Distribution by option by UW graduates (71 total) 40 35 30 25 BO 20 CO 15 MGG 10 PO 5 0 Tenure track Research Faculty Government Industry Research Staff and Instructor Other Percentage in each job category PO PhDs nationwide: the plurality in tenure track positions with many in research faculty and government positions (1999-2009) 35 30 25 20 All 15 UW 10 5 0 Tenure track Research Faculty Government All: 280 people counted, for UW, 26 total Industry Research Staff and Instructor Other What these results tells us • There are many career paths that physical oceanographers can take with the vast majority using their PhDs • Physical oceanographers are more likely to be employed by government than by industry • Research faculty positions are as common as tenure track positions • Question: are there differences between men and women? In the news • Newsweek, March 19, 2010 • Are We There Yet? In 1970, 46 women filed a landmark gender-discrimination case. Their employer was NEWSWEEK. Forty years later, their contemporary counterparts question how much has actually changed. • New York Times, March 21, 2010 • Bias Called Persistent Hurdle for Women in Sciences The report, “Why So Few?,” supported by the National Science Foundation, examined decades of research to cull recommendations for drawing more women into science, technology, engineering and mathematics, the so-called STEM fields. At Ocean Sciences • 42% of presentations were oral • In many Physical Oceanography sessions only 1/8 of presentations were by women • In at least two physical oceanography sessions there were no female speakers Where is the drop off of women occurring? • Examine graduate student attrition in our program • Examine current positions on PO faculties • Examine job distribution by time The number of women and men getting PhDs in Oceanography is reaching parity PO Male PhDs PO Female PhDs O’Connell and Holmes, 2005 From 2001-2005, 34 women and 86 men got their PhD in PO from 17 institutions surveyed (30% women) The graduate school pipeline at UW Oceanography: 1999-2009 • 61M/85F started at UW (58% women) • 11M/21F left with Masters (65% women) • 19M/16F left with PhD (46% women) Number of Men and Women by sub-discipline at 6 oceanography institutions (2004-2005) O’Connell and Holmes, 2005 411 scientists counted 45 Percentage of men and women in job types at academic institutions in Physical Oceanography (2006)(17 Institutions) 40 35 30 25 20 Male 15 Female 10 5 0 Assistant Prof Associate Prof Full Professor Res. Assistant Res. Associate Res. Full Institutions: WHOI, RSMAS, URI, UW, SIO, OSU, Lamont, FSU, NC State, Texas A&M, Rutgers, Old Dominion, UH, NC State, U of Alaska, U of Maine, UNC, 42 women and 238 men Percentage of women and men by job category in PO after post-doc (6 Institutions) 30 25 20 15 Male 10 Female 5 0 Tenure track Research Faculty Government Industry Research Staff and Instructor Other More jobs in industry, fewer in government, fewer women are gaining tenure track positions in the last decade (6 Institutions) 30 25 20 15 Male 10 Female 5 138 men, 43 women 0 30 PhD before 1996 Tenure track Research Government Industry Faculy Research staff and instuctors Other 25 PhD 1996 and after 20 119 men, 49 women 15 Male 10 Female 5 0 Tenure track Research Government Faculy Industry Research Staff and Instructors Other Are these results consistent with the other data? • The percentage of female PhDs is increasing (NSF 2008): In 1998, 24.5% of Oceanography PhDs were women In 2007, 45.7% of Oceanography PhDs were women • BUT the percentage of female faculty is not: In geosciences, in 1996-1997 20% of assistant professors were women while in 2004-2005 it was 26% (Holmes et al, 2008) PO Faculty produced by UW: 19992009 • Over last 10 years, 1/10 female PhDs have ended up in a tenure track position • 4/16 Male PhDs have ended up in a tenure track position How do the careers of women and men differ? • Our research suggests that although more women are gaining their PhD in recent years, they are less likely to obtain a tenure track position than they used to be, and they are less likely to obtain a tenure track position then men Reasons for the missing female faculty: why we should care • While we are training students for a wide variety of careers, giving them skills for a changing job market, we may not be giving half of our students role models that they can identify with in academia Reasons for the missing female faculty? • First anti-affirmative action legislation (Proposition 209 in California) implemented 1997 • I-200 in Washington State implemented 1998 • Critical mass (above 15%) of female faculty reached by mid 90s, 10 women of earlier cohort got faculty positions out of 59 total faculty hires (17%), in later cohort, it was 4 out of 36. What is being done? • NSF ADVANCE: Increasing the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers • MPOWIR (Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to increase retention) – With focus on senior graduate students, postdocs, and early career women Concerns not unique to PO • The imposter syndrome continues to effect women Jan 2010 Nature article Self-doubt plagues female Astronomers • Initiation of study to follow 1143 PhD Astronomers for 15 years starting in 2008 Why is the pipeline leaky for women? Holmes et al (2008) focus group of geoscientists at all levels • Male perception of problem: 1. The pipeline 2. Women’s views and choices 3. Societal expectations of women • Female perception of problem: 1. Structural problems with academia 2. The pipeline 3. Climate issues Why is the pipeline leaky for women? The structure of academia • Family issues 1. 2. 3. 4. Having to move for husband Overwhelmed after birth of 2nd child Lack of day care/flexible work Biological clock and tenure incompatibility • Lack of female mentors (cited more by men) 1. Women mostly have male mentors 2. 69% (41%) of male (female) tenure track professors have children • Chilly climate issues 1. 2. 3. Lack of clear communication with advisors Being cut out of field work Inappropriate workplace Why is the pipeline leaky for women? Women’s views and choices • Some comments by men (and one senior woman): Women are choosing different career paths Women don’t like field work Women have low interest in subject Women lack self confidence Women prefer to teach • However: Women talked as much or more than men about their research Institutions with higher teaching loads are no more family friendly • Women may need more explicit encouragement Women’s self-confidence is “extrinsic”, based on validation from others References • O’Connell, S. and M. A. Holmes, 2005, Women of the academy and the sea, Oceanography, 18, 12-24 • Holmes, M. A., S. O’Connell, C. Frey and L. Ongley, 2008, Gender imbalance in US geoscience academia, Nature Geoscience, 1, 79-82. • National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. 2009. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2006. Detailed Statistical Tables, NSF 09-317. Arlington, VA. • National Science Foundation, 2008 Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations of U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey, 1998–2007.