What do people do with their PhDs in Physical

Report
Where do all the oceanographers
go? Career paths in physical
oceanography
And is there a difference between men and
women
With Lisa Gerber, Susan Lozier , Renellys Perez,
Amelia Shevenell, Laurie Sindlinger, Mark
Warner
What kind of data is available?
• NSF 2009: survey of doctorate recipients
–
–
Physical Scientists
Geoscientists
• NSF 2008: doctorate completion surveys
–
Oceanographers
• O’Connell and Holmes (two papers)
– Geoscientists
– Oceanographers
• MPOWIR (Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase
Retention) data
–
–
Current makeup of PO faculty
Survey of PO doctorate recipients
• 1999-2009 Survey of UW Oceanography Graduate Program
What is the job distribution of PO PhDs?
MPOWIR data
• Faculty job distribution at 17 institutions in 2006 (WHOI,
RSMAS, URI, UW, SIO, OSU, Lamont, FSU, NC State, Texas
A&M, Rutgers, Old Dominion, UH, NC State, U of Alaska, U
of Maine, UNC)
–
238 men and 42 women
• PO PhDs from 6 Institutions since 1980 (UW, SIO, OSU,
WHOI, RSMAS, URI)
–
–
–
–
–
257 men, 92 women
Half of total 2001-2005 graduates from 17 institutions
Found current position from internet searches (Fall 2009)
All but 10 men and one woman were found
Removed post-doctoral fellows
Doctorate recipients: geosciences vs.
other physical sciences by employment
sector
60
50
40
30
Physical
Sciences
20
10
0
Earth
Atmos/Ocean
Sciences
Data taken from: NSF 2009 (note response rate 78%)
Geosciences: Earth/Atmospheric/Ocean Sciences
Physical Sciences: Astronomy/Astrophysics, Chemistry except biochemistry,
Earth/Atmospheric/Ocean Sciences, Physics
Percentage in job types at academic
institutions in PO (2006):
55% in tenure track, 45% in research track
(280 counted)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Assistant
Prof
Associate Full ProfessorRes. Assistant
Res.
Prof
Associate
Res. Full
Institutions: WHOI, RSMAS, URI, UW, SIO, OSU, Lamont, FSU, NC State, Texas A&M, Rutgers,
Old Dominion, UH, NC State, U of Alaska, U of Maine, UNC, 42 women and 238 men, MPOWIR
Distribution by option by UW graduates
(71 total)
40
35
30
25
BO
20
CO
15
MGG
10
PO
5
0
Tenure track
Research
Faculty
Government
Industry
Research Staff
and Instructor
Other
Percentage in each job category PO PhDs
nationwide: the plurality in tenure track positions
with many in research faculty and government
positions (1999-2009)
35
30
25
20
All
15
UW
10
5
0
Tenure track
Research
Faculty
Government
All: 280 people counted, for UW, 26 total
Industry
Research Staff
and Instructor
Other
What these results tells us
• There are many career paths that physical
oceanographers can take with the vast majority
using their PhDs
• Physical oceanographers are more likely to be
employed by government than by industry
• Research faculty positions are as common as
tenure track positions
• Question: are there differences between men
and women?
In the news
• Newsweek, March 19, 2010
• Are We There Yet?
In 1970, 46 women filed a landmark gender-discrimination
case. Their employer was NEWSWEEK. Forty years later,
their contemporary counterparts question how much has
actually changed.
• New York Times, March 21, 2010
• Bias Called Persistent Hurdle for Women in Sciences The
report, “Why So Few?,” supported by the National Science
Foundation, examined decades of research to cull
recommendations for drawing more women into science,
technology, engineering and mathematics, the so-called
STEM fields.
At Ocean Sciences
• 42% of presentations were oral
• In many Physical Oceanography sessions only
1/8 of presentations were by women
• In at least two physical oceanography
sessions there were no female speakers
Where is the drop off of women
occurring?
• Examine graduate student attrition in our
program
• Examine current positions on PO faculties
• Examine job distribution by time
The number of women and men
getting PhDs in Oceanography is
reaching parity
PO Male PhDs
PO Female PhDs
O’Connell and Holmes, 2005
From 2001-2005, 34 women and 86 men got their PhD in PO from 17 institutions
surveyed (30% women)
The graduate school pipeline at UW
Oceanography: 1999-2009
• 61M/85F started at UW (58% women)
• 11M/21F left with Masters (65% women)
• 19M/16F left with PhD (46% women)
Number of Men and Women by sub-discipline at 6
oceanography institutions (2004-2005)
O’Connell and Holmes, 2005
411 scientists counted
45
Percentage of men and women in job
types at academic institutions in
Physical Oceanography (2006)(17
Institutions)
40
35
30
25
20
Male
15
Female
10
5
0
Assistant
Prof
Associate
Prof
Full
Professor
Res.
Assistant
Res.
Associate
Res. Full
Institutions: WHOI, RSMAS, URI, UW, SIO, OSU, Lamont, FSU, NC State, Texas A&M, Rutgers,
Old Dominion, UH, NC State, U of Alaska, U of Maine, UNC, 42 women and 238 men
Percentage of women and men by job
category in PO after post-doc (6
Institutions)
30
25
20
15
Male
10
Female
5
0
Tenure track
Research
Faculty
Government
Industry
Research
Staff and
Instructor
Other
More jobs in industry, fewer in government,
fewer women are gaining tenure track positions
in the last decade (6 Institutions)
30
25
20
15
Male
10
Female
5
138 men, 43 women
0
30
PhD before 1996
Tenure track Research Government Industry
Faculy
Research
staff and
instuctors
Other
25
PhD 1996 and after
20
119 men, 49 women
15
Male
10
Female
5
0
Tenure track Research Government
Faculy
Industry
Research
Staff and
Instructors
Other
Are these results consistent with the
other data?
• The percentage of female PhDs is increasing (NSF
2008):
In 1998, 24.5% of Oceanography PhDs were
women
In 2007, 45.7% of Oceanography PhDs were
women
• BUT the percentage of female faculty is not: In
geosciences, in 1996-1997 20% of assistant
professors were women while in 2004-2005 it
was 26% (Holmes et al, 2008)
PO Faculty produced by UW: 19992009
• Over last 10 years, 1/10 female PhDs have
ended up in a tenure track position
• 4/16 Male PhDs have ended up in a tenure
track position
How do the careers of women and
men differ?
• Our research suggests that although more
women are gaining their PhD in recent years,
they are less likely to obtain a tenure track
position than they used to be, and they are
less likely to obtain a tenure track position
then men
Reasons for the missing female faculty:
why we should care
• While we are training students for a wide
variety of careers, giving them skills for a
changing job market, we may not be giving
half of our students role models that they can
identify with in academia
Reasons for the missing female
faculty?
• First anti-affirmative action legislation
(Proposition 209 in California) implemented
1997
• I-200 in Washington State implemented 1998
• Critical mass (above 15%) of female faculty
reached by mid 90s, 10 women of earlier
cohort got faculty positions out of 59 total
faculty hires (17%), in later cohort, it was 4 out
of 36.
What is being done?
• NSF ADVANCE: Increasing the Participation
and Advancement of Women in Academic
Science and Engineering Careers
• MPOWIR (Mentoring Physical Oceanography
Women to increase retention)
– With focus on senior graduate students, postdocs, and early career women
Concerns not unique to PO
• The imposter syndrome continues to effect
women Jan 2010 Nature article Self-doubt
plagues female Astronomers
• Initiation of study to follow 1143 PhD
Astronomers for 15 years starting in 2008
Why is the pipeline leaky for women?
Holmes et al (2008) focus group of
geoscientists at all levels
• Male perception of problem:
1. The pipeline
2. Women’s views and choices
3. Societal expectations of women
• Female perception of problem:
1. Structural problems with academia
2. The pipeline
3. Climate issues
Why is the pipeline leaky for women?
The structure of academia
• Family issues
1.
2.
3.
4.
Having to move for husband
Overwhelmed after birth of 2nd child
Lack of day care/flexible work
Biological clock and tenure incompatibility
• Lack of female mentors (cited more by men)
1. Women mostly have male mentors
2. 69% (41%) of male (female) tenure track professors have
children
• Chilly climate issues
1.
2.
3.
Lack of clear communication with advisors
Being cut out of field work
Inappropriate workplace
Why is the pipeline leaky for women?
Women’s views and choices
• Some comments by men (and one senior woman):
Women are choosing different career paths
Women don’t like field work
Women have low interest in subject
Women lack self confidence
Women prefer to teach
• However:
Women talked as much or more than men about their research
Institutions with higher teaching loads are no more family friendly
• Women may need more explicit encouragement
Women’s self-confidence is “extrinsic”, based on validation from
others
References
• O’Connell, S. and M. A. Holmes, 2005, Women of the academy and
the sea, Oceanography, 18, 12-24
• Holmes, M. A., S. O’Connell, C. Frey and L. Ongley, 2008, Gender
imbalance in US geoscience academia, Nature Geoscience, 1, 79-82.
• National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources
Statistics. 2009. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers
in the United States: 2006. Detailed Statistical Tables, NSF 09-317.
Arlington, VA.
• National Science Foundation, 2008 Division of Science Resources
Statistics, special tabulations of U.S. Department of Education,
National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary
Education Data System, Completions Survey, 1998–2007.

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