The Emergence of Patriarchy? Material Arts as Evidence Who invented Farming? • Observations of plant behavior—recognition of young seedlings, seeds, • Over time Connections between rain and growth • Awareness of where certain plants grew • Worked out how to grow and tend crops • But, “Why bother to grow crops if they are all over the place?” Why Change? • Easier access to tasty grains, or reliable food supply (foragers do not carry food with them) • Cereals only ripen once a year but seeds could be kept and eaten—storage? Accidental planting? • Slow change to sedentism • Increase in population (Why?) Evidence • 20,000 BCE– women had discovered food value of einkorn • A single good stand of wild einkorn could feed a family for a year • Grains had 50% more protein than wheat today • Easily plants itself so ancient peoples would return to campsite each year. • Eventually the small band might decide to stay a little longer, or not move on at all. So women had it easier now? • H & G men hunted about 4 days a week and women spent 2.5 days gathering to feed family for a week • Rest of the time was leisure (visiting, being, rituals, games, informal education/ raising of kids) Eynan Eynan • • • • • • Three layers of 50 stone houses Small stone domes Storage pits Huts had hearths Child and infant burials A settled hunting and gathering band… And with Farming (horticulture initially and then agriculture) • Woman’s world: – Mark fields for planting – Used fire hardened pointed digging sticks (later, larger scale– plowing) – Harvest time—all including children-helped bring in grain – Children watched sheep and goats – Gathering continued – fruit and nuts – Women did milking and cheese-making – Children’s work increased (from the age of three— chasing birds away...) Horticulture-> Agriculture • Men would begin to help clear fields using Slash and burn methods • Women would tend fields, complete household chores and tending children • And build stone/ mud brick homes, make tools, containers (first pottery around 8000 BCE) Was Farming Harder? • Abu Hareya (Syria) • Female skeletons had deformed toe bones and powerful upper arms (not found in male skeletons) Podcast • http://www.uh.edu/eng ines/epi960.htm Textile Production Why would it be a women’s task? • Domestic spinning and fiber preparation could be done with children underfoot (unlike hunting, plowing, deep sea fishing, mining • This tends to differ if weaving becomes a public, urban business Evidence of Increasing Distinction in Tasks Liulin site in China’s Yellow River Valley • Males are buried with stone adzes and chisels • Women are buried with spinning whorls Neolithic Xipo site, Lingbao, Henan Why would religion develop? Religion • In some societies, religion may have been an early form of social control– a way of encouraging certain standards of conduct as people learned to live together – Moderation in animal slaughter – Planting season • Viewed nature as imbued with supernatural powers (due to strong dependency on natural environment) Importance of Fertility Rites Settled agriculturalists tended to emphasize the FEMALE PRINCIPLE OF LIFE: the earth or womb out of which their crops grew and life depended on this rite as the true source of life Venus of Willendorf Catalhayuk– Great Mother Goddess Mother Goddesses Predictions?