Document

Report
POWERPOINT® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION
by ZARA OAKES, MS, The University of Texas at Austin
UNIT 2
7
PART B
Introduction to the
Endocrine System
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
FOURTH EDITION
Simple Endocrine Reflex: Parathyroid Hormone
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-10
Neurohormones: Major Groups
 Adrenal medulla
 Catecholamines
 Hypothalamus
 Anterior pituitary
 Posterior pituitary
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Pituitary Gland Anatomy
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-11
The Pituitary Gland: Two Fused
 Posterior pituitary
 Vasopressin
 Oxytocin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-12 (1 of 4)
The Pituitary Gland: Two Fused
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-12 (2 of 4)
The Pituitary Gland: Two Fused
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-12 (3 of 4)
The Pituitary Gland: Two Fused
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-12 (4 of 4)
The Pituitary Gland: Two Fused
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-12
The Pituitary Gland: Two Fused
Hormones of the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary
pathway
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-13
Endocrine Control
 Three levels
 Hypothalamic stimulation—from CNS
 Pituitary stimulation—from hypothalamic trophic
hormones
 Endocrine gland stimulation—from pituitary trophic
hormones
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Negative Feedback Controls
 Long-loop feedback
 Short-loop feedback
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-14
Control Pathway for Cortisol Secretion
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-15
The Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-16
A Complex Endocrine Pathway
PLAY Animation: Endocrine System: The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-17
Hormone Interactions
 Synergism
 Multiple stimuli—more than additive
 Permissiveness
 Need second hormone to get full expression
 Antagonism
 Glucagons opposes insulin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Example of Synergism
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-18
Endocrine Pathologies
 Exogenous
medication
 Replaces and
exceeds normal
 Cause atrophy
of gland
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-19
Endocrine Pathologies
 Hypersecretion: excess hormone
 Tumors or cancer
 Grave’s disease—thyroxin
 Hyposecretion: deficient hormone
 Goiter—thyroxin
 Diabetes—insulin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pathologies: Due to Receptors
 Downregulation
 Hyperinsulinemia
 Transduction abnormalities
 Testicular feminization syndrome
 Pseudohypothyroidism
 Abnormalities of control mechanisms
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Primary and Secondary Pathologies
PLAY Animation: Endocrine System: Response to Stress
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-20
Hormone Evolution
 Evolutionary conservation of hormone function
 Comparative endocrinology
 Pineal gland and melatonin example
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pineal Gland and Melatonin
 Influences body clock and antioxidant activity
 Other roles need research
 SAAD and sexual behavior
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pineal Gland and Melatonin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-22 (1 of 3)
Pineal Gland and Melatonin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-22 (2 of 3)
Pineal Gland and Melatonin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 7-22 (3 of 3)
Summary
 Introduction to hormones
 Classifications and features of hormones
 Regulation controlled by the endocrine and nervous
systems
 Interactions of hormones with other hormones
 Endocrine pathologies
 Hormone evolution
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

similar documents