Literary terms literary_terms

Otherwise known as “stuff you should
Definition-A rhetorical term for the repetition of a word or
phrase at the beginning of successive clauses.
Purpose- By building toward a climax, anaphora can create
a strong emotional effect.
Example-"We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France,
we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with
growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall
defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight
on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the
hills; we shall never surrender."
(Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons, June
4, 1940)
Definition-A verbal pattern in which the second half
of an expression is balanced against the first but with
the words in reverse grammatical order (A-B-C, C-BA).
Examples"I can write better than anybody who can write
faster, and I can write faster than anybody who can
write better.“ (A. J. Liebling)
"We didn't land on Plymouth Rock; Plymouth Rock
landed on us.“ (Malcolm X)
Definition-a writing style that omits conjunctions between
words, phrases, or clauses
Example-"Anyway, like I was saying, shrimp is the fruit of
the sea. You can barbecue it, boil it, broil it, bake it, saute it.
Dey's uh, shrimp-kabobs, shrimp creole, shrimp gumbo. Pan
fried, deep fried, stir-fried. There's pineapple shrimp, lemon
shrimp, coconut shrimp, pepper shrimp, shrimp soup,
shrimp stew, shrimp salad, shrimp and potatoes, shrimp
burger, shrimp sandwich. That--that's about it."
(Bubba in Forrest Gump, 1994)
Definition-A rhetorical term for the juxtaposition of
contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clauses.
Examples-"We must learn to live together as brothers
or perish together as fools."
(Martin Luther King, Jr., speech at St. Louis, 1964)
"The world will little note, nor long remember what we
say here, but it can never forget what they did here."
(Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address, 1863)
Definition-An independent clause followed by a series
of subordinate constructions (phrases or clauses) that
gather details about a person, place, event, or idea.
Purpose-The cumulative sentence is particularly good
for setting a scene or for panning, as with a camera, a
place or critical moment, a journey or a remembered
life, in a way not dissimilar to the run-on.
Example-"Her moving wings ignited like tissue paper,
enlarging the circle of light in the clearing and creating
out of the darkness the sudden blue sleeves of my
sweater, the green leaves of jewelweed by my side, the
ragged red trunk of a pine."
(Annie Dillard, Holy the Firm. Harper & Row, 1977)
Definition-sentence that exhorts, advices, calls to action
Less of a command and more of a request (imperative
sentence is the opposite)
Examples-" Not far to go now!"
" Your talents are wasted. You should look for a more
rewarding job!".
Definition-A figure of speech in which one word or
phrase is substituted for another with which it is
closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").
 Metonymy is also the rhetorical strategy of describing
something indirectly by referring to things around it,
such as describing someone's clothing to characterize
the individual.
 ExamplesDanish for Danish pastry
shocks for shock absorbers
On the level of slang, a redneck is a stereotypical member
of the white rural working class in the Southern U.S.,
Definition-A redundancy--in particular the needless repetition of
an idea using different words.
(2) In logic, a statement that is unconditionally true by virtue of its
form alone; for example, "Socrates is either mortal or he's not."
Examples-. . . who died of a fatal dose of heroin
. . . equalized the game to a 2-2 draw
. . . kept it from his friends that he was a secret drinker
. . . a group for one-parent single mothers
Tautology is either unnecessary elaboration (the Inland Revenue's
white-collar workers), pointless repetition (pair of twins),
superfluous description (Europe's huge butter mountain), a
needless appendage (weather conditions) or a self-cancelling
proposition (He is either guilty or not guilty)."
(Keith Waterhouse, Waterhouse on Newspaper Style, rev. ed. Revel
Barker, 2010)

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