Jessica Briseño ChS 245 OL-14004 English colonies made a discovery They found that by creating a nation, a symbol, a legal unity called the United States, they could take over land, profits, and political power from favorites of the British Empire In the process, they could hold back a number of potential rebellions and create a consensus of popular support for the rule of a new, privileged leadership When looked at the American Revolution in this way, the Founding Fathers had created an effective system Zinn, p. 59 The Siege of Yorktown Ends The surrender of a second British Army, marking effective British defeat (Starting with Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia) By 1760 there had been: 18 uprisings aimed at overthrowing colonial governments 6 black rebellions, from South Carolina to New York 40 riots of various origins Zinn, p.59 The Burning of Jamestown Local leadership saw possibilities of directing rebellious energy against England and her local officials After England’s victory in the French and Indian War, they had two rivals left: the English and the Indians The British Government could turn its attention to tightening control over colonies In conclusion, American leadership was less in need of English rule, the English more in need of colonist’ wealth Zinn, p. 60 The war brought: Glory for generals Death to privates Wealth for the merchants Unemployment for the poor There were 25,000 people living in New York when the French and Indian War ended Lower classes in Boston began to use the town meeting to vent grievances Certain lawyers, editors, and merchants of the upper class organized a “Boston Caucus” – with the exception of men like James Otis and Samuel Adams Zinn, p. 60 There was an accumulated sense of grievance against the rich that could account for explosiveness of mob action after the Stamp Act of 1765 There was a scheme in which the houses of fifteen rich people were to be destroyed There was a great fury against the rich A full-scale attack on wealth and even on the right to acquire unlimited private property was launched in 1766 Voters in elections were urged by a Privates Committee to oppose “great and overgrown rich men” There were long-lasting social movements, highly organized, involving the creation of counter governments These movements were aimed at a handful of rich landlords Zinn, p. 62 Rioters in the Hudson Valley rescued prisoners Tenants were seen as “chiefly the dregs of the People” Land rioters saw their battle as poor against rich In Vermont, described themselves as “a poor people… fatigued in settling a wilderness country” and their opponents as “a number of Attorneys and other gentleman, with all their tackle of ornaments, and compliments, and French Finesse” Zinn, p. 63 “Poor men were always oppressed by the rich” “They (the wealthy) will be too apt to be framing distinctions in society” The Regulator movement was a powerful movement of white farmers (“the regulators”) in North Carolina It was organized against wealthy and corrupt officials from 1766-1771 They referred to themselves as “poor Industrious peasants,” as “labourers,” “the wretched poor,” “oppressed” by “rich and powerful…designing Monsters” Zinn, p. 63 Saw that wealth and political power ruled North Carolina Resented the tax system Did not represent slaves but they spoke for small owners, squatters and tenants Organized to prevent collection of taxes Petitioned the government on their grievances Zinn, p. 64 Impressment and the quartering of troops by British were directly hurtful to the sailors and other working people Soldiers began to take jobs of working people Many working people lost jobs because of the colonists’ boycott of British goods Zinn, p. 66 December 1773 The Boston Committee of Correspondence formed a year before in order to organize anti-British actions Tea party led to the Coercive Acts by Parliaments, which established martial law in Massachusetts, dissolved the colonial government, closed the port in Boston, and sent in troops Zinn, p. 67 Resolutions adopted in North Carolina in May of 1776 Sent to the Continental Congress, declared independence of England, asserted that all British law was null and void, and urged military preparations Signing of Declaration of Independence Fun Fact: 69% of the signers of the Declaration of independence had held colonial office under England Zinn, p.71 The Declaration functioned to mobilize certain groups of Americans, while ignoring others such as women, Indians, and black slaves The philosophy of the Declaration was that the government is set up to secure their life, liberty, and happiness However, it also ignored existing inequalities in property Four days after the reading, townsmen were ordered to show up for a military draft The rich could pay their way out of it, which led to rioting and shouting “Tyranny is Tyranny let it come from whom it may” According to Howard Zinn, the American Revolution was just a replacement of one tyranny for another The declaration was written in such a way that didn’t include the inequalities that were currently happening Those who wrote it and supported it wanted to keep lower classes as they were There was much fury from lower class towards the rich The lower class was still convinced to support against British 69% of signers had once held office under British Lower class realized that higher class and rich would continue to do things for themselves “Tyranny is tyranny let it come from whom it may” holds great importance. It shows that the lower class people with less power were still under the control of elites "American Revolution - Credo Reference." American Revolution - Credo Reference. Unknown, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. "American Revolution." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. Zinn, Howard. "Tyranny Is Tyranny." A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. N. pag. Print.