### relativity 2

```Special Theory of Relativity
• Up to ~1895, used simple Galilean Transformations
x’ = x - vt
t’ = t
• But observed that the speed of light, c, is always
measured to travel at the same speed even if seen
from different, moving frames
• c = 3 x 108 m/s is finite and is the fastest speed at
which information/energy/particles can travel
• Einstein postulated that the laws of physics are the
same in all inertial frames. With c=constant he
“derived” Lorentz Transformations
light
sees vl =c
u
moving frame also sees
vl = c NOT vl = c-u
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“Derive” Lorentz Transform
Bounce light off a mirror. Observe in 2 frames:
A velocity=0 with respect to light source
A’ velocity = v
observe speed of light = c in both frames 
c = distance/time = 2L / t
A
c2 = 4(L2 + (x’/2)2) / t’2
A’
Assume linear transform (guess)
x’ = G(x + vt)
let x = 0
t’ = G(t + Bx)
so x’=Gvt t’=Gt
some algebra
(ct’)2 = 4L2 + (Gvt)2 and L = ct /2 and t’=Gt
gives
(Gt)2 = t2(1 + (Gv/c)2) or G2 = 1/(1 - v2/c2)
mirror
L
A
P460 - Relativity
A’ x’
2
Lorentz Transformations
Define b = u/c and g = 1/sqrt(1 - b2)
x’ = g (x + ut)
u = velocity of transform
y’ = y
between frames is in
z’ = z
x-direction. If do x’ x then
t’ = g (t + bx/c) “+”  “-”. Use common sense
can differentiate these to get velocity transforms
vx’ = (vx - u) / (1 -u vx/ c2)
vy’ = vy / g / (1 - u vx / c2)
vz’ = vz / g / (1 - u vx / c2)
usually for v < 0.1c non-relativistic (non-Newtonian)
expressions are OK. Note that 3D space point is
now 4D space-time point (x,y,z,t)
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Time Dilation
• Saw that t’ = g t. The “clock” runs
slower for an observer not in the
“rest” frame
• muons in atmosphere. Lifetime = t
=2.2 x 10-6 sec ct = 0.66 km
decay path = bgtc
b
g
average in lab
decay path
.1
1.005
2.2 ms
0.07 km
.5
1.15
2.5 ms
0.4 km
.9
2.29
5.0 ms
1.4 km
.99
7.09
16 ms
4.6 km
.999
22.4
49 ms
15 km
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Time Dilation
• Short-lived particles like tau and B.
Lifetime = 10-12 sec ct = 0.03 mm
• time dilation gives longer path lengths
• measure “second” vertex, determine
“proper time” in rest frame
If measure L=1.25 mm
and v = .995c
L
t(proper)=L/vg = .4 ps
Twin Paradox. If travel to distant planet
at v~c then age less on spaceship then in
“lab” frame
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• Rocket A has v = 0.8c with respect to
DS9. Rocket B have u = 0.9c with
respect to Rocket A. What is velocity
of B with respect to DS9?
DS9
A
B
V’ =(v-u)/(1-vu/c2)
v’ = (.9+.8)/(1+.9*.8)= .988c
Notes: use common sense on +/if v = c and u = c v’ = (c+c)/2= c
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• Rocket A has v = 0.826c with respect
to DS9. Rocket B have u = 0.635c
with respect to DS9. What is velocity
of A as observed from B?
DS9
A
Think of O as DS9
and O’ as rocket B
B
2)
V’ =(v-u)/(1-vu/c
v’ = (.826-.635)/(1-.826*.635)= .4c
If did B from A get -.4c
(.4+.635)/(1+.4*.635)=1.04/1.25 = .826
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Relativistic Kinematics
• E2 = (pc)2 + (mc2)2 E = total energy
m= mass and p=momentum
• natural units E in eV, p in eV/c, m in
eV/c2  c = 1 effectively. E2=p2+m2
• kinetic energy K = T = E - m
@ 1/2 mv2 if v << c
• Can show: b = p/E and g = E/m
 p = bgm if m.ne.0 or p=E if m=0
(many massless particles, photon, gluon and
(almost massless) neutrinos)
• relativistic mass m = gm0 a BAD concept
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“Derive” Kinematics
• dE = -Fdx = -dp/dt*dx = -vdp = vd(gmv)
• assume p=gmv (need relativistic for p)
• d(gmv) = mgdv + mvdg = mdvg3 dv
 dE =  m vg dv
=
m v(1  v
3
v = final
2
v =0
2 3 / 2
/c )
dv
= gmc2 - mc2
=Total Energy - “rest” energy
= Kinetic Energy
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Lorentz Transformations
P and E are components of a 4 vector and so transform
by same Lorentz Transformation
Define b = u/c and g = 1/sqrt(1 - b2)
px’ = g (px + uE)
u = velocity of transform
py’ = py
between frames is in
pz’ = pz
x-direction. If do x’ x then
E’ = g (E + bpx/c) “+”  “-”. common sense
Examples with particle with mass=m at rest
“transformed” to moving with velocity v
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• What are the momentum, kinetic, and
total energies of a proton with v=.86c?
· v = .86c g = 1/(1.86*.86)0.5 = 1.96
• E = g m = 1.96*938 MeV/c2 = 1840 MeV
• T = E - mc2 = 1840 - 938 = 900 MeV
•
p = bE = gbm = .86*1840 MeV =
1580 MeV/c
or p = (E2 - m2)0.5
Note units: MeV, MeV/c and MeV/c2. Usually never
have to use c = 300,000 km/s in calculation
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• Accelerate electron to 0.99c and then
to 0.999c. How much energy is added
at each step?
· v = .99c g = 7.1
v = .999c
g = 22.4
• E = g m = 7.1*0.511 MeV = 3.6 Mev
•
= 22.4*0.511 MeV = 11.4 MeV
MeV even though velocity change in step 2
is only 0.9%
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Lorentz Transformations
(px,py,px,E) are components of a 4-vector which has
same Lorentz transformation
px’ = g (px + uE/c2)
u = velocity of transform
py’ = py
between frames is in
pz’ = pz
x-direction. If do px’  px
E’ = g (E + upx) “+”  “-” Use common sense
also let c = 1
Frame 1
Frame 2 (cm)
Before and after scatter
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center-of-momentum frame
Sp = 0. Some quantities are invariant when going
from one frame to another:
py and pz are “transverse” momentum
Mtotal = Invariant mass of system derived from
E(total) and P(total) as if just one particle
How to get to C.M. system? Think as if 1 particle
E(total) = E1 + E2 Px(total) = px1 + px2 (etc)
M(total)2 = E(total)2 - P(total)2
g(c.m.) = E(total)/M(total) and
b(c.m.) = P(total)/E(total)
1
2 at rest
p1 = p2
1
2
Lab
C.M.
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Particle production
convert kinetic energy into mass - new particles
assume 2 particles 1 and 2 both mass = m
Lab or fixed target E(total) = E1 + E2 = E1 + m2
P(total) = p1  M(total)2 = E(total)2 - P(total)2
M(total) = (E12+2E1*m + m*m - p12).5
M(total)= (2m*m + 2E1*m)0.5 ~ (2E1*m)0.5
CM: E1 = E2 E(total) = E1+E2 and P(total) = 0
M(total) = 2E1
1
2 at rest
p1 = p 2
1
2
Lab
CM
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p + p  p + p + p + pbar
what is the minimum energy to make a protonantiproton pair?
• In all frames M(total) (invariant mass) at threshold
is equal to 4*mp (think of cm frame, all at rest)
Lab M(total) = (E12+2E1*m + m*m - p12).5
M(total)= (2m*m + 2E1*m)0.5 = 4m
E1 = (16*mp*mp - 2mp*mp)/2mp = 7mp
CM: M(total) = 2E1 = 4mp or E1 and E2 each =2mp
at threshold all at rest in
c.m. after reaction
1
2 at rest
p1 = p 2
1
2
Lab
CM
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Transform examples
• Trivial: at rest E = m p=0. “boost”
velocity = v
E’ = g(E + bp) = gm
p’ = g(p + bE) = gbm
• moving with velocity v = p/E and then
boost velocity = u (letting c=1)
E’ = g(E + pu)
p’ = g(p + Eu)
calculate v’ = p’/E’ = (p +Eu)/(E+pu)
= (p/E + u)/(1+up/E) = (v+u)/(1+vu)
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• A p=1 GeV proton hits an electron at rest.
What is the maximum pt and E of the
electron after the reaction?
• Elastic collision. In cm frame, the energy
and momentum before/after collision are the
same. Direction changes. 90 deg = max pt
180 deg = max energy
 bcm = Ptot/Etot = Pp/(Ep + me)
· Pcm = gcmbcm*me
(transform electron to cm)
· Ecme = gcm*me
(“easy” as at rest in lab)
·
• pt max = Pcm as elastic scatter same pt in lab
•
Emax = gcm(Ecm + bcmPcm)
= gcm(gcm*me + gbb*me)
= g*g*me(1 + b*b)
P460 - Relativity
180 deg scatter
18
• p=1 GeV proton (or electron) hits a
stationary electron (or proton)
mp = .94 GeV me = .5 MeV
incoming target bcm gcm
Ptmax
Emax
p
e
.7
1.5 .4 MeV 1.7 MeV
p
p
.4
1.2 .4 GeV 1.4 GeV
e
p
.5
1.2 .5 GeV 1.7 GeV
e
e
.9995 30 15 MeV 1 GeV
 Emax is maximum energy transferred to stationary
particle. Ptmax is maximum momentum of (either)
outgoing particle transverse to beam. Ptmax gives
you the maximum scattering angle
•
a proton can’t transfer much energy to the electron
as need to conserve E and P. An electron scattering
off another electron can’t have much Pt as need to
conserve E and P.
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