RED 4519 ch 4

RED 4519
Chapter 4: Phonemic Awareness
Dr. Michelle Kelley
Diagnostic & Corrective
Today’s Goals
 Introduce Florida’s Formula for Reading Success
 Discuss the importance of oral language, including behaviors
by age.
 The Dimensions of Phonemic Awareness (implications for
assessment and instruction).
Florida's Reading Formula
 Florida’s formula for reading improvement based on the scientific
research in reading and reading development: State Board Rule
6 + 4+ ii + iii =
No Child Left Behind
Florida's Reading Formula
6 Elements (Fab 5 + oral language)
4 Types of Assessment
ii Initial Instruction (90 min. block)
iii Immediate Intensive Intervention
No Child Left Behind
Four Types of Assessments
 Screening- used to identify students who are at-risk for
reading difficulties.
 Diagnostic- more in-depth assessments that determine
a student’s specific instructional needs.
 Progress Monitoring- used to document that
students are making adequate reading progress.
 Outcome Measures- FCAT, end of course exams
Initial Instruction- 90 Minute Block
 Includes motivation
 Print-rich environment
 Explicit
 Systematic
 Scaffolded
 Differentiated
 Reading-Writing connections
Immediate Intensive Intervention
 Flexible-grouping based on students’ needs
 Accommodations to instruction
 More frequent monitoring
Quick Write
Respond to,
“Children should be seen not heard”.
Discuss at your table.
Oral Language
The interaction between the speaker and listener. OL is critical
to the development of reading and writing, it PRECEDES
other language skills and is INTEGRATED into reading and
Oral Language
We use oral language to:
1. communicate
2. socialize
3. learn and think
What factors may hinder oral language
 ESL and other culturally diverse students.
 Impoverished children.
 Learning disabled students.
 Low functioning students.
 High mobility students.
 The classroom.
How do we assess oral language?
Think about the following as you discuss:
 Behaviors you would look for
 Role of vocabulary knowledge
 Knowledge of language structures
 Knowledge of speech sounds
Use page 17 of HO to assist you.
Create a T-chart
While watching the video note:
How does Mrs. Wilson's
Things I want to remember
classroom help students develop for my future classroom…
oral language?
Quick Write- What is Phonemic Awareness ?
(p. 77 in text)
 Definition: “ A child’s understanding and conscious
awareness that speech is composed of identifiable units,
such as spoken words, syllables, and sounds”
(International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young
Children, 1998, p. 4)
Poll- RED 4519 Phonemic Awareness
Participation Assignment – True/False
1. ___ Phonemic Awareness is the understanding that letters
represent certain sounds.
2. ___ Phonemic awareness tasks are aural or oral.
3. ___ Students must know letter names and their sounds in order
to hear sounds in a word.
4. ___ The ability to decode a word, is one of the seven dimensions of
phonemic awareness (as identified in the text).
5. ___ Most linguistics agree that the 26 letters in the English language
have 44 phonemes.
6. ___ Students who are phonemically aware become proficient readers.
7. ___ About 25% of first graders benefit from one on one explicit
instruction in phonemic awareness, while 75% have already developed
phonemic awareness.
8. ___ Many students who engage in oral language experience such
as songs, chants, and nursery rhymes naturally develop phonemic awareness.
Dimensions of Phonemic Awareness- Count off by 7’s.
1. Hearing syllables within a word.
2. Hearing initial sounds/recognizing alliteration.
3. Hearing rhyming words.
4. Distinguishing oddity.
5. Blending words orally.
6. Segmenting words orally.
7. Manipulating sounds orally to create new words.
What do these mean? (p. 77-79 in text)
Informal and Formal Assessment of
Phonemic Awareness
 Observation
 Quick Phonemic Awareness Assessment Device (p.
C.24, p. 443)
 Pre-test and post-test (pp. 444-451 C.25/26) that
focus on the seven dimensions of phonemic
 Checklist (p. 452 C. 27) matching dimensions and
pre-post test.
Pre-Assessment for Phonemic Awareness
 pp. 444-451; C-25 C-26 of text.
 p. 452 C.27 to sort ideas
Look at Heather’s test- Poll
Note- Please do not write on the
A. Determine what she has mastered, is
developing, or has difficulty with each
dimension assessed.
B. Identify an activity or activities to assist an
area she is having difficulty with.
Segmenting Sounds
 View Video clip: Teaching Techniques for the Primary Grades
What is DIBELS?
D- Dynamic
I- Indicators of
B- Basic
Why do schools use DIBELS?
1. It is free.
2. It is a quick assessment.
3. Valid- assesses phonological awareness in 5 specific areas.
4. Sensitive to instruction in a short amount of time.
5. Multiple forms available.
6. Established reliability & validity- special training.
7. Easy to interpret.
5 Areas Assessed with DIBELS - PA
 Initial Sounds- all of K
 Letter Naming- All of K & Fall 1st
 Phoneme Segmentation-Winter K, all of 1st
 Nonsense Words- Winter K, all of 1st & 2nd
 Oral Reading- 1st through 3rd
 activities
 ReadWriteThink
Introducing Children to Wonderful Language
Sounds (p. 84-89)
 Songs
 Nursery rhymes
 Poems
 Jump rope jingles
 Tongue twisters
 Riddles
 Children’s literature that includes rhyme, alliteration,
and onomatopoeia
Activities to Support PA- p. 91
 Sound Boxes/Elkonian Boxes
How would this help a student?
Initial Sounds Bingo
 P. 92
 Appendix D.5 beginning on pp. 508-517.
 Let’s Try It!
PA Summary
 Hearing sounds in words.
 Typically developed by end of 1st grade.
 Not prerequisite for reading (makes it easier though).
 Instruction in PA is short (20 min. in early grades), best if
integrated in with other literacy activities.
 Read chapters 5
 Complete “Word Alert! Phonics Terms” HO pp.
21-22 for next class.

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