RED 4519 Chapter 4: Phonemic Awareness Dr. Michelle Kelley Diagnostic & Corrective Reading Today’s Goals Introduce Florida’s Formula for Reading Success Discuss the importance of oral language, including behaviors by age. The Dimensions of Phonemic Awareness (implications for assessment and instruction). Florida's Reading Formula Florida’s formula for reading improvement based on the scientific research in reading and reading development: State Board Rule 6A-6053 6 + 4+ ii + iii = No Child Left Behind Florida's Reading Formula 6 Elements (Fab 5 + oral language) + 4 Types of Assessment + ii Initial Instruction (90 min. block) + iii Immediate Intensive Intervention = No Child Left Behind Four Types of Assessments Screening- used to identify students who are at-risk for reading difficulties. Diagnostic- more in-depth assessments that determine a student’s specific instructional needs. Progress Monitoring- used to document that students are making adequate reading progress. Outcome Measures- FCAT, end of course exams Initial Instruction- 90 Minute Block Includes motivation Print-rich environment Explicit Systematic Scaffolded Differentiated Reading-Writing connections Immediate Intensive Intervention Flexible-grouping based on students’ needs Accommodations to instruction More frequent monitoring Quick Write Respond to, “Children should be seen not heard”. Discuss at your table. Oral Language The interaction between the speaker and listener. OL is critical to the development of reading and writing, it PRECEDES other language skills and is INTEGRATED into reading and writing. Oral Language We use oral language to: 1. communicate 2. socialize 3. learn and think What factors may hinder oral language development? ESL and other culturally diverse students. Impoverished children. Learning disabled students. Low functioning students. High mobility students. The classroom. How do we assess oral language? Think about the following as you discuss: Behaviors you would look for Role of vocabulary knowledge Knowledge of language structures Knowledge of speech sounds Use page 17 of HO to assist you. Create a T-chart http://www.learner.org/libraries/readingk2/wilson/index.html# While watching the video note: How does Mrs. Wilson's Things I want to remember classroom help students develop for my future classroom… oral language? Quick Write- What is Phonemic Awareness ? (p. 77 in text) Definition: “ A child’s understanding and conscious awareness that speech is composed of identifiable units, such as spoken words, syllables, and sounds” (International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1998, p. 4) Poll- RED 4519 Phonemic Awareness Participation Assignment – True/False False/+True - Statement 1. ___ Phonemic Awareness is the understanding that letters represent certain sounds. 2. ___ Phonemic awareness tasks are aural or oral. 3. ___ Students must know letter names and their sounds in order to hear sounds in a word. 4. ___ The ability to decode a word, is one of the seven dimensions of phonemic awareness (as identified in the text). 5. ___ Most linguistics agree that the 26 letters in the English language have 44 phonemes. 6. ___ Students who are phonemically aware become proficient readers. 7. ___ About 25% of first graders benefit from one on one explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, while 75% have already developed phonemic awareness. 8. ___ Many students who engage in oral language experience such as songs, chants, and nursery rhymes naturally develop phonemic awareness. Correction Dimensions of Phonemic Awareness- Count off by 7’s. 1. Hearing syllables within a word. 2. Hearing initial sounds/recognizing alliteration. 3. Hearing rhyming words. 4. Distinguishing oddity. 5. Blending words orally. 6. Segmenting words orally. 7. Manipulating sounds orally to create new words. What do these mean? (p. 77-79 in text) Informal and Formal Assessment of Phonemic Awareness Informal Observation Quick Phonemic Awareness Assessment Device (p. C.24, p. 443) Pre-test and post-test (pp. 444-451 C.25/26) that focus on the seven dimensions of phonemic awareness Checklist (p. 452 C. 27) matching dimensions and pre-post test. Pre-Assessment for Phonemic Awareness pp. 444-451; C-25 C-26 of text. p. 452 C.27 to sort ideas Look at Heather’s test- Poll Note- Please do not write on the assessment. A. Determine what she has mastered, is developing, or has difficulty with each dimension assessed. B. Identify an activity or activities to assist an area she is having difficulty with. Segmenting Sounds View Video clip: Teaching Techniques for the Primary Grades http://www.reading.org/Iframe/9303/9303.html What is DIBELS? D- Dynamic I- Indicators of B- Basic E-Early L-Literacy S-Skills Why do schools use DIBELS? 1. It is free. 2. It is a quick assessment. 3. Valid- assesses phonological awareness in 5 specific areas. 4. Sensitive to instruction in a short amount of time. 5. Multiple forms available. 6. Established reliability & validity- special training. 7. Easy to interpret. 5 Areas Assessed with DIBELS - PA Initial Sounds- all of K Letter Naming- All of K & Fall 1st Phoneme Segmentation-Winter K, all of 1st Nonsense Words- Winter K, all of 1st & 2nd Oral Reading- 1st through 3rd http://www.fcrr.org/SCASearch/ activities ReadWriteThink Introducing Children to Wonderful Language Sounds (p. 84-89) Songs Nursery rhymes Poems Jump rope jingles Tongue twisters Riddles Children’s literature that includes rhyme, alliteration, and onomatopoeia Activities to Support PA- p. 91 Sound Boxes/Elkonian Boxes How would this help a student? Initial Sounds Bingo P. 92 Appendix D.5 beginning on pp. 508-517. Let’s Try It! PA Summary Hearing sounds in words. Typically developed by end of 1st grade. Not prerequisite for reading (makes it easier though). Instruction in PA is short (20 min. in early grades), best if integrated in with other literacy activities. Assignment Read chapters 5 Complete “Word Alert! Phonics Terms” HO pp. 21-22 for next class.