Ethics Plan: Scope • • • • • Ethics introduction, the Purpose of Ethics Theories and approaches to Ethics Ethics and Culture/Religion Arguing Ethics Threats to ethics and ethical problems in knowledge • Under the influence of ethics—’wrong’ ethics, ethics in history. Ethics ToK Part 1: Introduction Where do Ethics come from? Approaches to Ethics Theories of Ethics Remember this guy? Ethics…We all have some The only ToK topic that remains a branch of philosophy, ethics is not an area where research can be done to approach certainty, especially as a given ‘sample’ population grows larger. The origins of our ethics are extremely diverse. Or is it more human sciences? Human sciences talk about motives, decisions, actions and consequences of actions. Ethics studies not how human beings DO act, but rather how they SHOULD act. Ethics deals with human value-judgments and morality. The good ol’ human condition We (most of us) have to think about right and wrong, good and bad. Do you think this is nature, nurture, or both? It ethics intuitive? What about your conscience? The questions we find most important are the ones that never reveal a clear or consistent answer. Nearly every single news story you will read, listen to, or watch will involve ethics to some level. It is a pervasive concept—where human beings are, so to is our desire to categorize things into right/wrong, good/bad and make decisions based on how we categorize them. Some Ethical Questions to get the juices flowing…WWJD? (What would Jiminy Do?) • • • • • Is abortion ever justified? Should drugs be legalized? Are there limits to free speech? Is there ever such a thing as a just war? Should euthanization of a terminally ill patient be illegal, even if it’s what the patient wants? • Should you keep a secret even if keeping quiet could cause someone harm? • Should certain books, song lyrics, and films be censored? Who should censor them? • If everyone in a race is using performance enhancing drugs, is it still wrong to use them? A mish-mash… Ethics attempts to combine emotions, personal/cultural senses of identity, religions, ideologies to try to reflect on the nature of moral choices; to try to give general perspectives that can then apply to particular cases. Does this look familiar? The International Baccalaureate Organization aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. To this end the IBO works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programs of international education and rigorous assessment. These programs encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right. Do we carry any kind of moral responsibility to gain knowledge, see from different perspectives—even try to grasp a perspective repugnant to us—and try to understand the complexities of the world? Or…said another way… Does ethics come with responsibility or is it a responsibility to behave ethically? Do we have ethics because we feel that we owe something to others? • Could it be part of our biology? Could our brain be wired to behave ethically? http://www.ted.com/talks/paul_zak_trust_mora lity_and_oxytocin.html OXYTOCIN! • This is the same neuro-hormone that Kelly McGonigal referenced in her TedTalk about stress—it is the hormone released in social situations, both good and bad. • But does that explain the root of all of our morals and ethics? Or is it just the beginning? Does free-will exist or is it all up to biology? Sinbad • Does context matter? This story is told by a woman in Arabia while she is essentially trapped by the king. • Does context of reader matter? Male, female, religious, not religious. • How do you decide reprehensibility? This exercise should tell you a lot about yourself! • Do you feel like you need more details? How often are you given every detail of news stories? When we have to make our moral judgments on what we are given, we are often guilty of hasty decisions. • • • • • • • • • What’s the diff? With a partner, try to differentiate between these: Ethics Morals Values Principles Duties Beliefs Value-judgments Justice Likes and dislikes Sinbad Jessamyn Mandango Arunta Sinbad Mandango Jessamyn Arunta Sinbad Arunta Mandango Jessamyn Sinbad Mandango Arunta Jessamyn Writing question—Please respond in your comp book: How much ethical weight goes into your decision of where to go to college? Explain. How much ethical weight goes into your decision of what career you will pursue? Explain. What would you do? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uletl1MA eQ8 Chalk Talk 1. List ten of your most prevalent values or morals. 2. List ten of your most prevalent sources of values or morals. 3. List 5-10 of the most heavily debated ethical dilemmas you see happening in present day. 9/27/13 • Blog due Saturday • TOK essay outline due Tuesday • NO SCHOOL Monday • Today: – Comp book write – Finish notes for this week – SINBAD!!!