Tier 2 Reading Instruction

Report
Tier 2 Reading Instruction
Nicole Fenty, Ph.D
University of Louisville
Today
• Response to Intervention (Three Tier Model):
Tier 1 Academic Instruction
• Supplemental Programs
– Curricula
– Characteristics
• Five Key Components of Reading
– Sample strategies
Multi-tier Model
Approximately what
percentage of the
students in your
classroom are receiving
or are in need of tier 2
reading interventions?
Tier 2: Characteristics
• Tier 2 and Beyond consists of general education
instruction plus the following intervention:
– Small-group instruction (2-4 students)
– 3-4 intervention sessions per week (30-60 minutes per
session)
– Conducted by trained and supervised personnel (not the
classroom teacher)
– Conducted in and out of the general education classroom
– 9-12 weeks in duration (repeated, as needed)
www.nrcld.org
Tier 2: Characteristics
Small Groups
• Point system for motivation
• Immediate corrective feedback
• Mastery of content before moving on
• More time on difficult activities
• More opportunities to respond
• Fewer transitions
• Setting goals and self-monitoring
• Special relationship with instructor
www.nrcld.org
Example of Tier Level Interventions
Reading
Time
Curricular
Focus
Curricular
Breadth
Frequency of
Progress
Monitoring
Tier I
Tier 2
90
120
5 areas
Less than 5
Core
Core
+
Supplemental
Every six
to eight
weeks
Weekly or
greater
How frequently are
students who
receive tier 2
reading
interventions in your
classroom/school
being assessed?
Sample Common Supplemental
Reading Curricula
•
•
•
•
SRA Early Interventions in Reading
Corrective Reading
Reading Mastery
Are there any additional supplemental reading
programs that your school is using?
Characteristics of Effective Tier 2
Reading Programs
• Research-based instructional strategies that explicitly teach
strategies and skills;
• Systematic, sequential, and very often scripted instruction
that moves children from simple to more complex skills and
strategies;
• Ample practice opportunities that allow children to practice
skills and strategies in reading and writing text;
• Assessment tools for diagnosing children's needs and
monitoring progress; and
• Provide professional development that will ensure teachers
have the skills necessary to implement the program
effectively and meet the needs of their children.
ednews.org
The Role of Assessment
• DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early
Literacy Skills)
• STAR Early Literacy and STAR Reading
Assessment
• Aimsweb
• DRA (Developmental Reading Assessment)
• Running Records
What are some additional assessments that your school uses to
determine if students need tier 2 reading interventions?
Risk Status
Colors provide a quick indication of the student’s progress and
the risk that they have of not achieving the expected level of
proficiency.
Low Risk
“Good to Go”
Moderate Risk
Caution
High Risk
DANGER!
Who Needs
Extra Support?
High Risk:
7
Moderate Risk:
3
Low Risk:
9
Five Key Components of the Core
Reading Program
•
•
•
•
•
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
• Phonological Awareness
– The conscious understanding about how
speech can be broken down into different
size parts
– The ability to manipulate those parts
• Phonemic Awareness
– The conscious understanding that spoken
words are made up of individual sounds
Note: Phonological Awareness is not…
the same as phonics - no letter-sound correspondence is involved. It may be an
essential skill for phonics instruction to make sense, however.
Excerpt from Kindergarten Class: DIBELS
Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
WORD:
STUDENT
SAYS:
SCORING
PROCEDURE:
trick
cat
“t...r...i...k”
“k...a...t”
/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/
/k/ /a/ /t/
CORRECT
SEGMENTS
4 /4
3 /3
Assessment 4
Benchmark 36
Student
Score
Recommended
Instructional Level
Student 6
22
Strategic (Tier 2)
Student 9
32
Strategic (Tier 2)
Student 12
10
Strategic (Tier 2)
Elkonin Boxes
•
•
•
Count the sounds in the
word with the child.
Draw one box for each
sound.
Use chips to represent
sounds at first.
right, shoe, lip
right
shoe
lip
Phonics
• Phonics is the knowledge that letters represent
sounds and when these sounds are blended or
pronounced, the result is reading words.
• Skills
– Letter-sound correspondence, blending, onsetrimes/word families, multi-syllable words
• Activities used for phonological awareness can
also be used for phonics instruction just include
letters
Excerpt from Kindergarten Class: DIBELS
Nonsense Word Fluency
Word
Student Says
Scoring
Procedure
Correct Letter
Sounds
tob
“t...o...b”
t o b
3 /3
dos
“d...o...s”
d o s
3 /3
Assessment 4
Benchmark 26
Student
Score
Recommended
Instructional Level
Student 2
21
Strategic (Tier 2)
Student 3
16
Strategic (Tier 2)
Student 6
15
Strategic (Tier 2)
Phonics: Strategy
• Model individual sound in isolation
• Ask students to repeat the sound
• Practice the sound by manipulating in the
context of different real and nonsense words
• If available practice the sound in the context
of connected text
• Review previous sounds
• Review new sound
These letters go together to
make the sound…
Say it with me… Again say it with
me… Your turn…
ay
SRA Early Interventions in Reading
Using a Marker Board or
Manipulative Letters
hay
Using a Marker Board or
Manipulative Letters
day
Using a Marker Board or
Manipulative Letters
lay
No Way
“Maybe you can play a trick,” said
Kay.
“Maybe you can say, Bark, bark!”
Excerpt from SRA Open Court Reading
By Jennifer Ball
Sound Review
b
l
ay
y
ay
p
Texts for Teaching Phonics
• Decodable books and materials
• Guided reading books
Fluency
Fluency
accuracy
prosody
speed/rate
A reader’s fluency rate depends on
the complexity of the text
Second Grade Class
Fall 04
StudentName ORF RTF
Tiffany
44
19
Allison
26
18
Amber
15
25
Erin B
23
15
Sheri
49
41
Carson
56
45
Tavia
33
23
Haleigh
41
38
Jacqueline
53
28
Shane
39
14
Matt
47
36
Meagan
30
8
Amanda
40
11
Cheryl
49
25
Alex
72
35
Erin T
51
22
Jennifer
58
34
Tessa
73
49
Marissa
57
0
Ashley
44
25
Katie
12
*
Stacy
23
15
Mean
43.4
Median
28.0
No. ss below BM 9
Total students tested 21
% ss below BM 43%
NWF
Comments
54
Accurate reading; few errors with multi-syllable words
37
Reading some NWs sound by sound first
22
Few HF words read accurately, reading S x S
25
Few HF words read accurately, reading S x S
69
Accurate and fluent reading, good skills with MS words
81
Accurate and fluent reading, good skills with MS words
63
Difficulty with MS words and HF words
61
Few HF words read accurately, difficulty with MS words
42
Many cvc words read with long vowel sounds
59
Distracted; multiple errors with MS and HF words
45
Long for short vowels, confuses nonsense for real words
32
Used initial consonants to guess; NWF confusion
70 Slight difficulty with MS words and confusion with some HF words
57
Accurate reading; few errors with multi-syllable words
94
Fluent, accurate; good prosody; good CVC automaticity
48 Fluent and accurate, but hesitant; long vowel sounds in cvc words
51
Few errors with multi-syllable words, long for short vowels
78
Accurate and fluent reading, good skills with MS words
55
Good reading, not able to retell; shy?
53
Right at the benchmark; some hesitancies, but accurate
20
Slow, labored reading; word by word; poor blending,
25 Few HF words read accurately, reading S x S
53.1
31.5
8
21
38%
29
Excerpt from 2nd Grade Class: DIBELS
Oral Reading Fluency
Number of
Words
Passage
I gave Ben a red yo-yo.
6
We did push-ups, pull-ups, and sit-ups.
9
Assessment 1
Benchmark 44
Student
Score
Recommended
Instructional Level
Allison
26
Strategic (Tier 2)
Tavia
33
Strategic (Tier 2)
Haleigh
41
Strategic (Tier 2)
Shane
39
Strategic (Tier 2)
Meagan
30
Strategic (Tier 2)
Amanda
40
Strategic (Tier 2)
Sample Fluency Program Guidelines : Small
Group
Step 1: The teacher begins by browsing the title, picture and caption with students.
Step 2: The teacher uses a graphic organizer to help students to make predictions
about what might occur in the passage.
Step 3: The teacher then reads the passage as students follow along silently.
Step 4: Students then choral read the passage.
Step 5: Students practice the passage by reading with a partner.
Step 6: The teacher then times the student for one minute.
Step 7: The teacher and student chart the number of word correctly per minute.
Step 8: As students wait to be time, they respond to the comprehension questions
that accompany a particular passage. Review the comprehension questions with
students.
You may use a variety of programs, but this a research-based way of teaching fluency
Resources for Texts
•
•
•
•
•
Quick Reads
Great Leaps
Read Naturally
Leveled narrative texts (e.g. Rigby)
Leveled expository texts (e.g. Delta science)
Vocabulary
• Listening
• Speaking
• Reading
• Writing
}
Vocabulary used for
oral communication
}
Vocabulary used for
written communication
Text
Talk
Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002) Bringing Words to Life
Step One: Read (and discuss) the story with your students.
Step Two: Introduce the targeted words one at a time.
Step Three: Ask students to repeat the word.
Step Four: Introduce your student-friendly definition.
Step Five: Share examples of the word in contexts that are
different from the context in the story.
Step Six: Engage students in thinking about and using the meaning
of the word.
Step Seven: Ask students to repeat the word again to reinforce its
phonological representation.
Step Eight: Create activities where students are required to
interact with the targeted words.
Tired Words
• Tired words are used far too
often in children’s speaking
and writing.
• Make a list of tired words.
• Review the list of tired words,
and discuss good replacement
words for each tired word.
Look up words in the
thesaurus to add to list.
• Make a word wall of
replacement words.
• Discuss importance of making
choices about which
replacement word to use.
little
big
nice
good
said
Vocabulary
John gave Mary a present.
John gave Mary a kiss.
Mary gave an excellent performance.
The doctor gave John a shot.
John gave it his best shot.
Mary gave John a shove.
John gave a valid argument.
Mary gave in.
Tired Words



Gave =






bestowed
granted
awarded
devoted
administered
offered
imparted
presented
collapsed
*Word Wall for Tired Words
big
little
huge
enormous
humongous
grand
great
vast
giant
prominent
gigantic
swollen
rotund
immense
gargantuan
tremendous
microscopic
tiny
teensy
diminutive
miniscule
modest
petite
puny
nice
kind
saintly
generous
gracious
This is an
organic
process.
good
said
spectacular
awesome
fabulous
excellent
exceptional
outstanding
worthy
groovy
nifty
grand
stated
yelled
uttered
conveyed
recited
reported
noted
alleged
posited
claimed
exclaimed
proclaimed
announced
asserted
Comprehension
The process of constructing meaning
from text
Comprehension Assessments
• Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory
– Comprehension questions
• Qualitative Reading Inventory
– Retell
• Narrative: Setting/background, goal, events, resolution
• Expository: Main idea, details
– Comprehension questions
• Explicit vs. Implicit
Bubble Bubble Spittlebug
Main Idea and Supporting Details
Details:
Details:
Main Idea:
Details:
Details:
Doctoral Program In Behavior Disorders
Nicole Fenty
Assistant Professor, Special Education
College of Education and Human Development
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY 40292
[email protected]
(502) 852-2183
For more information on past and future ABRI webinars, go to:
https://louisville.edu/education/srp/projects/abri/trainings

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