Simple Sentence

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Simple Sentence
PRACTICE CLASS #8 (#9)
2012-04-24/25
NO
MORE
SIMPLE SENTENCE
THE PENULTIMATE TOPIC BEFORE THE
FINAL EXAM
LET’S PRACTICE WHAT WE HAVEN’T LEARNED…
SIMPLE SENTENCE - EXERCISES
BASIC INFORMATION
SENTENCE TYPES
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
• STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION = based on the
NUMBER AND TYPE of CLAUSES in a sentence:
SENTENCE
SIMPLE
COMPLEX
COMPOUND
VERB CLASSES
• One of the properties of verbs is VALENCY.
• VALENCY is the number of obligatory elements
that a particular verb takes.
• On the basis of VALENCY verbs can be divided
into five types.
VERB CLASSES
VERBS
INTENSIVE
EXTENSIVE
INTRANSITIVE
monotransitive
ditransitive
TRANSITIVE
complex
transitive
ON THE BASIS OF VERB CLASSES
CLAUSE TYPES
CLAUSE TYPES
VERBS
CLAUSE TYPES
THE SINGLE VERB ELEMENT OF A
SIMPLE SENTENCE IS ALWAYS A
FINITE VERBS
VP.
INTENSIVE/LINKING
SO, THESE ARE THE 7 TYPES OF
SIMPLE SENTENCES
IN ENGLISH
INTRANSITIVE
EXTENSIVE
TRANSITIVE
1. SVCs
2. SVA
3. SV
MONOTRANSITIVE
4. SVO
DITRANSITIVE
5. SVOiOd
COMPLEX TRANSITIVE 6. SVOCo
7. SVOA
CLAUSE TYPES
• Naturally, OPTIONAL ADVERBIAL may be added to
sentences of any type:
(Luckily) the sun is (already) shining.
I (definitely) must send her a birthday card
(tomorrow).
The S, V, O and C are OBLIGATORY sentence
elements, whereas the A can be either
OBLIGATORY or OPTIONAL. The A is obligatory in
the SVA and SVOA clause types:
John often goes to the cinema. S(A)VA
She kept the children in bed during the storm.
SVOA(A)
PAGE 142 – exercise 1 (a-f)
SVA
S V O Co
S V O Co
S V Oi Od
S V O or S V O (A)
S V Cs
PAGE 142 – exercise 1 (g-k)
S V Cs
S V (A) Oi Od
S V Cs
S V Cs or S V Cs (A)
S V Cs
PAGE 142 – exercise 1 (l-o)
S V O or S V O (A)
S V Cs
S V Cs
S V Cs or S V Cs (A)
CLAUSE TYPES: important note
• Sometimes, A VERB MAY BELONG TO MORE THAN
ONE CLASS, which is called MULTIPLE-CLASS
MEMBERSHIP:
She made [her children] [a chocolate cake]. SVOO
She made [a chocolate cake]. SVO
She made [them] [extremely happy]. SVOCo
ANOTHER NOTE: If deleting an adverbial changes the
meaning of the verb completely and/or the verb
class, the adverbial is considered to be obligatory:
Frankenstein lives. Vs. Frankenstein lives [in London].
PAGE 142 – exercise 2 (a - b)
I HOPE THEY HAVE SAVED A TABLE BY THE WINDOW FOR US.
MAY I ASK A FAVOUR FROM YOU?
PAGE 142 – exercise 2 (a - b)
CAN I PLAY A GAME OF CHESS WITH YOU?
HER GREAT-AUNT LEFT A FORTUNE TO HER.
WE WISH A VERY HAPPY NEW YEAR TO ALL OUR FRIENDS.
PAGE 142 – exercise 3 (a - d)
OBLIGATORY (complex transitive
verb, V + Co)
OBLIGATORY (intensive verb, V + Cs)
OBLIGATORY (monotransitive verb,
V + Od)
CAN BE DELETED, BUT NOT
OPTIONAL, BECAUSE THE CLASS
CHANGES (“explain” can be both
transitive and intransitive)
PAGE 142 – exercise 3 (e - i)
CAN BE DELETED, BUT NOT OPTIONAL, BECAUSE
THE CLASS CHANGES (“tell” can be both
monotransitive and ditransitive)
OBLIGATORY (intensive verb,
V + Cs)
CAN BE DELETED, BUT NOT
OPTIONAL, BECAUSE THE CLASS
CHANGES (“fly” can be both
transitive and intransitive)
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL
PAGE 143 – exercise 4 (a - e)
NO OPTIONAL ELEMENTS
NO OPTIONAL ELEMENTS
EITHER THE FIRST OR THE
SECOND, BUT ONE HAS TO STAY
AMBIGUOUS, EITHER “FOR EVERY MEMBER OF THE FAMILY” IS OPTIONAL, OR
“A PRESENT FOR EVERY MEMBER OF THE FAMILY” IS ONE BIG OBJECT
PAGE 143 – exercise 4 (f - j)
“FOR YEARS” IS OBLIGATORY
BECAUSE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT
EITHER THE FIRST OR THE
SECOND, BUT ONE HAS TO STAY
PAGE 143 – exercise 5 (a - e)
V Cs = INTENSIVE
V Oi Od = DITRANSITIVE
V O Co = COMPLEX TRANSITIVE
V O (A) = MONOTRANSITIVE
V A (A) = INTENSIVE
PAGE 143 – exercise 6
1) S + V (DITRANSITIVE) + Oi + Od
2) S + V (COMPLEX TRANSITIVE) + Od + Co
1) S + V (MONOTRANSITIVE) + Od
2) S + V (INTENSIVE) + Cs
BASIC INFORMATION
NEGATION
GENERAL TYPES OF NEGATION
• CLAUSE NEGATION – the whole clause is
syntactically treated as negative:
– She’s not an attractive woman in any respect(, is she?)
• LOCAL NEGATION – one constituent (but not
necessarily a clause element) is negated:
– She’s a not unattractive woman in some ways. (NOT: in any respect)
• PREDICATION NEGATION – very rare, applies only
after certain auxiliaries (often depends on
pronunciation):
– They may not go swimming. [=They are allowed not to go swimming]
NEGATION IS REALIZED THROUGH USE OF NEGATIVE
ITEMS.
NEGATION via NEGATIVE ITEMS
• The clause can be negated:
– EITHER BY NEGATING THE VERB,
– OR BY NEGATING OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS.
• Depending on what sentence element is being negated,
it is necessary to use different negative items:
– VERB NEGATION: the negative particle NOT is always used:
He does not dring. She is not a model wife.
– NEGATION OF OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS can be achieved
using DIFFERENT NEGATIVE ITEMS:
• Words negative in form and meaning: no, none, never, not
• Word negative in meaning only (not negative in form): rarely,
seldom, scarcely, barely, little, few
• VERBS, ADJECTIVE, PREPOSTIONS with IMPLIED NEGATIVE
MEANING: refuse, deny, fail; reluctant, unaware; without, against;
unless
NEGATION: SCOPE OF NEGATION
• The SCOPE OF NEGATION is the stretch of language
OVER WHICH THE NEGATIVE MEANING OPERATES
AND WHERE NON-ASSERTIVE ITEMS MUST BE
USED. The POSITION OF THE NEGATIVE
• The SCOPE
EXTENDS FROM THE
ITEM OF
mayNEGATION
drastically INFLUENCE
NEGATIVE
TO: OF THE WHOLE
THEITEM
MEANING
– THE END OF THESENTENCE:
CLAUSE (NOT NECESSARILY THE END
OF THE SENTENCE),
– THE END OF THE NEGATED PHRASE (IF ONLY A SINGLE
PHRASE IS NEGATED), OR
– THE BEGINNING OF THE FINAL ADJUNCT.
• WHY IS THIS SUCH A BIG DEAL?
SCOPE OF NEGATION
• She definitely didn’t speak to him.
= It is definite that she didn’t speak to him.
• She didn’t definitely speak to him.
= It is not definite that she spoke to him.
PAGE 145 – exercise 9 (a-d)
THERE AREN’T ANY STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM YET.
I WOULDN’T LIKE TO GO ANYWHERE FAR AWAY.
WE CANNOT BE FRIENDS ANY MORE/ANY LONGER.
HE HAS NEVER/RARELY GIVEN ME ANY USEFUL ADVICE.
PAGE 145 – exercise 9 (e-h)
YOU CAN’T PARK EITHER ON THE LEFT OF RIGHT HERE.
THE WEATHER DOESN’T SEEM ANY BETTER.
SUSAN WILL NEVER MANAGE TO DO ANYTHING USEFUL.
THERE WAS NO CHANCE ANYBODY WOULD COME.
PAGE 145 – exercise 9 (i-l)
BILL WAS UNENTHUSIASTIC TO READ ANY OF THE BOOKS.
NO PROBLEM CAN BE SOLVED LIKE THAT.
LITTLE OF THE FOOD WAS BAD.
THEY WON’T GO SHOPPING.
PAGE 146 – exercise 10
(REALLY,) I (REALLY) DON’T (REALLY) UNDERSTAND.
THAT (SIMPLY) IS (SIMPLY) NOT ACCEPTABLE.
I (DEFINITELY) DON’T (DEFINITELY) KNOW (DEFINITELY) WHAT ….
(EVEN) HE (EVEN) DOESN’T (EVEN) TRY (EVEN).
BASIC INFORMATION
SENTENCE TYPES AND DISCOURSE
FUNCTION
Sentence types and discourse
functions
PAGE 146 – exercise 11 (a-d)
WHAT IS HER NAME?
WHERE DOES SHE COME FROM?
DID SOMEONE CALL HER LAST NIGHT?
CAN’T YOU GIVE US ANY HELP?
PAGE 146 – exercise 11 (e-h)
YOU’VE GOT YOUR CAMERA WITH YOU?
SHALL WE TRAVEL BY BUS OR TRAIN?
HASN’T SHE GROWN!
IS THAT A REASON FOR DESPAIR?
Thank you for your time!
THE END

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