maiolino_B11

Report
ALMA Band 11:
the extragalactic science case
Roberto Maiolino
Why is Band 11 is important
for extragalactic studies?
Band 11: Far-IR Fine structure lines:
the strongest lines in galaxy spectra
Band 11: close
to the peak of
galaxies SED
C+
N+
N+ O0
12-11
10-9
Molecular
lines
Band 11: high
excitation
molecular
transitions
PAH
Warm
dust
(SFR)
Hot
dust
(AGN)
free-free
Band 11
@ z=0
Band 11
@ z=0.5
Low metallicity (young) galaxies:
enhanced far-IR fine structure line emission
[CII]/FIR ~ 0.01 !
[CII]
[CII]/CO ~ 50000 !!!!!
CO
[CII] Herschel-PACS image
of NGC 4214 (Z~0.3Z)
PDR
([CII])
molecular
(CO)
[CII] traces “CO-dark”
molecular gas
[CII]158mm fluxHerschel
map (Herschel)
PACS
M82
3.6 Mpc
15”
260pc
optical
Contursi+10
[CII]158mm flux map
(ALMA band 7 ext. conf.)
[CII] velocity field
LESS01
z=4.7
SFR = 500 M/yr
0.5”
4 kpc
De Breuck+ in prep.
Revealing invisible galaxies with [CII] mapping
z=4.4
Lensed quasar
LAGN>1046 erg/s
IRAM-PdBI
[CII] map
CO(5-4)
quasar
host
(compact)
10 kpc
continuum
merging
companion
Gallerani+12
Gallerani+ in prep
The companion is undetected in NICMOS Near-IR images
undetected in submm continuum, undetected in CO
CO
redshift
ALMA band
Frequency [GHz]
Detectability of [CII] 158mm
[CII] in metal-rich
galaxy (i.e. conservative)
1
Band 11
 can detect and map MW-like galaxies
in the nearby Universe
Detectability of [NII] 205mm
1
Band 11
 can detect and map MW-like galaxies
in the local Universe
[NII]205mm @ z=4.7
Nagao+12
Constraining the metallicity
in heavily obscured galaxies
Quasar+companion at z=4.4
[CII]158mm map:
elusive merging companion
Gallerani+12
Gallerani+ in prep
[NII]205mm map:
metal-enriched outflows
[CII]/FIR
Far-IR fine structure lines
diagnostic diagrams:
physics (UV radiation field,
density, etc…) and chemistry
of the ISM in galaxies
Sturm+10
Kauffman+99
Hailey-Dunsheath+10
Nagao+11
CO(1-0)/FIR
High excitation CO transitions: tracing X-ray dominated regions (XDR)
Band 11
Herschel-SPIRE
Van der Werf+10
Powerful tool
to identify totally
obscured and
embedded AGNs
XDR
~1-0.5” resolution needed to minimize dilution by the host galaxy
Nuclear kinematics and dynamics in AGNs:
Black Hole masses

NGC1068
CO(2-1)
2” = 140pc
x
log (Radius Influence) [arcsec]
MBH (M)
105
106
107
108
109
log Distance [Mpc]
Need to access high CO transition
(band 11) to trace nuclear molecular gas
ULIRGs
(merging Black Holes)
Clumpy versus continuous obscuring “torus”
5 pc
Expected mid-IR (~12mm) thermal emission
From Meisenheimer 2008
Testing clumpy model for nuclear dust thermal emission
NGC1068
CO(2-1)
2” = 140pc
Nuclear small dusty
clouds should emit
both MIR and FIR
MIR and FIR
morphologies
should be on similar scales
ionization
cone
Band 11 beam
(5 km baseline)
VLTI mid-IR
Raban et al.
2009
ALMA band
bands 11 VLTI
3-10
In the continuous model far-IR should be much more extended
Quasar feedback
Quasar-driven massive outflows
cleaning massive galaxies of their gas content
Invoked by any model of galaxy formation
to quench star formation in massive galaxies
Massive quasar-driven molecular outflows
revealed by Herschel through the detection of
OH P-Cygni profiles
Cosmic Star formation
rate density
Fischer+10
Sturm+11
Mrk231
1000 km/s
lrest (mm)
band
11
Redshift
Band 11 will detect and MAP
QUENCHING MASSIVE OUTFLOWS
in quasars and star forming galaxies
throughout the
QUENCHING EPOCH
Summary
A few key extragalactic science cases for Band 11:
- Trace the physics, dynamics and chemistry of galaxies at z<1 through the
most luminous lines (and extinction free) in galaxy spectra
- Reveal and map “dark gas” and “dark galaxies” (possibly the bulk of
galaxy population) out to z~1
- Map peak of galaxy SED
- Test AGN torus models
- Identify heavily obscured AGN through highly excited CO transitions
- Measure dual Black Holes masses in merging systems
- Trace galaxy quenching mechanisms throughout
the galaxy quenching epoch
- More science cases…

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