Orthopedic Impairments

Report
Ebonie Prather, Jessica Gibbs,
Clifford Young, Rachel Hopkins
What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
 Any condition that interferes with the health or
normal functioning of bones, joints, or muscles.
 The term is very broad making it difficult to
identify many of the general characteristics.
 Orthopedic impairments are often referred to as
physical disabilities.
What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
 According to the NAPCSE, the term includes:
• impairments due to the effects of a congenital
anomaly. (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some
member, etc.)
• impairments due to the effects of disease (e.g.,
poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.)
• impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral
palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that
cause contractures)
Types of Orthopedic Impairments
 The three most common types
of orthopedic impairments:
 Cerebral Palsy
 Muscular Dystrophy
 Spinal cord injuries
Types of Orthopedic Impairments
 Cerebral Palsy
 The largest group of students with orthopedic
impairments.
 Occurs because of injury to the brain before, during, or
after birth and results in poor motor coordination and
abnormal motor patterns.
Types of Orthopedic Impairments
 Muscular Dystrophy
 A group of diseases that weakens the muscles.
 Students often have difficulty walking or actively moving
about.
 Spinal Cord Injuries
 Occurs when the spinal cord is severely damaged or
severed, usually resulting in partial or extensive
paralysis, i.e. spina bifida.
Causes of Orthopedic Impairment
 Some students may be
born and/or have an
accident that results in
diseases and defects of the
muscles and bones.
 Car accidents, sports-
related injuries, and
premature birth may result
in broken bones and
burns, which damages
more than just muscle and
bone.
Causes of Orthopedic Impairment
 Aside from birth defects, living
conditions play a large role in
orthopedic impairments.
 Club foot, an orthopedic
impairment, is caused by
malnutrition.
 Other effects of malnutrition are
bone softness and bone deformity.
 Lack of medical care and hygiene
can further increase the risk of
orthopedic impairments.
Orthopedic Impairments in IDEA
 Students classified under the OI category of IDEA:
 severe orthopedic impairments

The impairment must affect their educational performance to
the degree that the child requires special education.
 Children served in a special education program for
orthopedic impairments:
 Usually function no lower than criteria outlined for
mild intellectual disabilities programs.
Orthopedic Impairments in IDEA
Special Education
Students
Students with
Orthopedic
Impairments
1%
Students
receiving IDEA
Services
99%
 Students with orthopedic impairments only accounted
for about 1.25% of all students receiving IDEA services.
Preventing Orthopedic Impairment
 Focus on well-balanced





diets
Be aware of cleanliness
Seek proper medical care
Provide proper nutrition
for strong bones
Monitor births to avoid
complications
Administer vaccines to
prevent diseases that
increase the chance of OI
Accommodations for
Orthopedic Impairments
 Accommodations depend on the individual needs of
the student.
 “Most” students with orthopedic impairments have no
sign of cognitive impairments.
 Teachers should try to include the student in the
general curriculum as much as possible.
Accommodations
Students may need:
 Extra time to get from one class
to another
 Extended test taking time
 Extended time on writing
assignments due to slow writing
speed
 Accessible parking close to
building
 A course waiver or substitution
for qualified students
More Accommodations
 Adjustable table and lab
work stations
 Accessible seating
arrangements within the
classroom
 Note takers or use of tape
recorders
 Photocopying of notes if
the impairment disables
the act of writing
Tips and Strategies
 Not all orthopedic
impairments are constant
and unchanging
 Some students may
experience relapses and
require bed rest or
hospitalization.
 Students may need extra
time to make up missed
work.
Tips and Strategies
A student with an upper
body orthopedic
impairment may not be
able to raise his/her hand.
 Make eye contact with
these students and be sure
to call on them when they
indicate they want to
participate in class
discussions.
A student with an
orthopedic impairment
may be wheelchair bound
 Take a seat when
conversing with a
wheelchair bound student
so he or she does not have
to peer upwards.
Assistive Technology
 The use of assistive technology may be appropriate
depending on the impairment.
Devices Used to Access Information
 Speech recognition software
 Screen reading software
Devices Used for Mobility
 Canes
 Wheelchairs
 Walkers
 Specialized exercise
equipment
 Crutches
 Chairs, desks, and tables
for proper posture
development
Journal Articles
 The following is a sample of journal articles that will
hopefully provide support for parents, teachers and
students.
Peer Relations and Friendship in Physically
Disabled Children by K. Mulderij
 A child’s ability to show initiative, degree of mobility, and physical
attractiveness play a role in establishing friendships.
 When a child suffers from a lack of mobility, family members often have to
actively seek friends for the child.
 Children who have the ability to show initiative have an advantage in
establishing friendships.
 Educators can use the information presented in the article as a
means of understanding the dynamics of peer relationships, and
to facilitate the development of friendships between physically
disabled students and their classmates.
 Several recommendations are made for parents of physically
disabled children and teachers of physically disabled students to
assist in the friendship establishment process.
 Ebonie Prather
 Mulderij, K. (1997). Peer relations and friendship in physically disabled children. Child: Care,
Health and Development, 23(5), 379-389. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from Ebscohost
Database.
Students with Physical Disabilities and
Health Impairments revised by John Venn
 This article focuses on the difficulties that students with
Orthopedic Impairments may face in school, and how to prevent
them.
 Working in teams is the best way to create a plan for these
students because several perspectives are represented.
 The article lists several modifications, some technological and
some environmental, that teachers may choose to implement so
that their students are provided with the best opportunities
available.
 Clifford Young
 John Venn (1983). Students with Disabilities and Health Impairments. Retrieved October 8, 2010
from: http://library.adoption.com/articles/students-with-physical-disabilities-and-health- impairments.html
Research Into the Lifeworld of Physically
Disabled Children by Karel J. Mulderij
 The article is taken from the perspective of students with
physical disabilities, and details multiple types of “bodies” then
summarizes the view of the children when another person stares
at them, and also interactions with peers.
 The article is a great resource for teachers to use as a reminder of
what the student sees and how to interact with that student.
 Rachel Hopkins
 Mulderij, K. J. . (1996). Research into the lifeworld of physically disabled children. Child: Care, Health, and
Development, 22(5), 311-322.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.libez.lib.georgiasouthern.edu/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1996.tb00433.x/pdf
Assistive devices and cerebral palsy: the use of assistive
devices at school by children with cerebral palsy
By I-C. Huang, D. Sugden and S. Beveridge
 This article reminds parents and teachers that one of the most
important opinions, that is often overlooked, regarding assistive
technology is the opinion of students using the technology.
 The study discovered that effectiveness of technology depends on
several factors, including: children’s willingness, teacher’s
attitudes and parents’ support.
 Also, this study pointed out that assistive technology is used quite
often in school and hardly ever at home.
 Keep in mind children experience things differently than adults!
 Jessica Gibbs
 Child: care, health, development. Retrieved October 20, 2010
from:C:\Users\default.tald2374124x001\Documents\AssistiveDevices.pdf
Resources
The following is a small sample of websites, journal articles and
books that teachers, parents and students may find helpful.
National Resources
 National Association of Parents with Children in Special
Education:
› http://www.napcse.org/exceptionalchildren/orthopedicimpairments.php
 Dssc.org provides links to other resources that cover lesson plans,
›

›

IEPs and benefits for disabilities:
http://www.dssc.org/
National Public Website on Assistive Technology:
http://assistivetech.net/webresources/techActProjects.php
Assistive Technology: A Resource for School, Work, and
Community [Paperback] Karen F. Flippo (Author), Katherine J.
Inge (Editor)
National Resources for Specific
Orthopedic Impairments
 United Cerebral Palsy:
› http://www.ucp.org/ucp_channel.cfm/1/12
 Kids Health from Nemours (Particularly helpful because it offers
information in Spanish as well):
› http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/brain/cerebral_palsy.html
 Muscular Dystrophy Association:
› http://www.mda.org/
 Spinal Cord Injury and Disease Resources (Index of articles for
students, parents and teachers):
› http://www.makoa.org/sci.htm
State Resources
› Georgia State Resource Guide:
http://www.ucp.org/uploads/georgia_state_resources.pdf



›
Housing: p 40
Employment: p 21
Assistive Technology: p 4
Center for an Educated Georgia:
http://educatedgeorgia.org/forparents-q10185-c5Georgia_Special_Needs_Scholarship_SB_10.aspx

This scholarship provides around $6,000
to students with disabilities so that
educational programs may be tailored to
fit their individual needs.
State Resources for Specific
Orthopedic Impairment
 United Cerebral Palsy of Georgia:
› http://www.ucp.org/ucp_local.cfm/63
 FOCUS Extraordinary Families
Kool Kidz:
› http://www.focus-ga.org/
 Georgia State Resources:
› http://www.ucp.org/uploads/georgia_
state_resources.pdf
 Page 16 provides information
specifically for Spinal Cord Injuries
Local Resource
 Bulloch County Schools—Special Education
 http://www.bulloch.k12.ga.us/cms/page_view?d=x&piid=&vpid=128019
3940853
› Provides therapies and services available in the Bulloch County school
system
 The Special Olympics
 http://www.specialolympics.org/Locations/Special_Olympics_NA_Ge
orgia.aspx
› Statesboro hosts Special Olympic events annually (volunteers, coachers
and spectators gather to support local individuals with special needs)
. . . and now you can test your
knowledge of Orthopedic Impairments
with a quiz!
1. There are no local resources in Bulloch
County for Children with Orthopedic
Impairments.
 True
 False
1. There are no local resources in Bulloch
County for Children with Orthopedic
Impairments.
 True
 False
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
1. There are no local resources in Bulloch
County for Children with Orthopedic
Impairments.
 True
 False
Congratulations! That answer is correct!
Next Question
2. What does the Georgia State Resource
guide not provide information about?
A. Housing
B. Employment
C. Transportation
D. Assistive Technology
2. What does the Georgia State Resource
guide not provide information about?
Housing
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
2. What does the Georgia State Resource
guide not provide information about?
Employment
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
2. What does the Georgia State Resource
guide not provide information about?
Transportation
Congratulations!!! That answer is correct!
Next Question
2. What does the Georgia State Resource
guide not provide information about?
Assistive Technology
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
3. What is NOT a birth defect that results in
orthopedic impairments?
A.
Muscular Dystrophy
B.
Spina Bifida
C.
Cerebral Palsy
D. Autism
3. What is NOT a birth defect that results in
orthopedic impairments?
Muscular Dystrophy
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
3. What is NOT a birth defect that results in
orthopedic impairments?
Spina Bifida
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
3. What is NOT a birth defect that results in
orthopedic impairments?
Cerebral Palsy
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
3. What is NOT a birth defect that results in
orthopedic impairments?
Autism
Congratulations!!! That answer is correct!
Next Question
4. Malnutrition causes orthopedic impairments.
 True
 False
4. Malnutrition causes orthopedic impairments.
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect
Try Again
 False
4. Malnutrition causes orthopedic impairments.
 True
Congratulations!!! This answer is correct!
Next Question
5. What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
A.
Significant limitations in intellectual functioning
B.
Limited strength, vitality, or alertness as a result of chronic
or acute health problems
C.
Any condition that interferes with the health or normal
functioning of bones, joints, or muscles
D. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external force
5. What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
Significant limitations in intellectual functioning
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
5. What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
Limited strength, vitality, or alertness as a result of
chronic or acute health problems
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
5. What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
Any condition that interferes with the health or
normal functioning of bones, joints, or muscles
Congratulations!!! That answer is correct!
Next Question
5. What is an Orthopedic Impairment?
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external force
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
6. A teacher should talk to a student in a
wheelchair standing as close as possible.
 True
 False
6. A teacher should talk to a student in a
wheelchair standing as close as possible.
 True
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
6. A teacher should talk to a student in a
wheelchair standing as close as possible.
Congratulations!!! That answer is correct!
Next Question
 False
7. In order for the student to be classified under
the OI category of IDEA, their severe orthopedic
impairments must:
A. adversely affect their educational performance to the
degree that the child requires special education.
B. be very painful.
C. cause a classroom distraction.
D. require expensive accommodations.
7. In order for the student to be classified under
the OI category of IDEA, their severe orthopedic
impairments must:
adversely affect their educational performance to the
degree that the child requires special education.
Congratulations!!! That answer is correct!
Quiz End
7. In order for the student to be classified under
the OI category of IDEA, their severe orthopedic
impairments must:
be very painful.
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
7. In order for the student to be classified under
the OI category of IDEA, their severe orthopedic
impairments must:
cause a classroom distraction.
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
7. In order for the student to be classified under
the OI category of IDEA, their severe orthopedic
impairments must:
require expensive accommodations.
I’m sorry that answer is incorrect 
Try Again
Thank you for Participating!
Orthopedic Impairments
Dr. Betty Nelson,SPED 6130
Gibbs, Hopkins,Prather, Young
References
 Bursuck, W. D., & Friend, M. (2008). Including Students With Special Needs: A





Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers (5th Edition) (MyEducationLab
Series) (5 ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Hooper, S. R., & Umansky, W. (2008). Young Children with Special Needs (5th
Edition) (5 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Mulderij, K. (1997). Peer relations and friendship in physically disabled
children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 23(5), 379-389. Retrieved
October 12, 2010, from Ebscohost Database.
Orthopedic Aid. CBM Website. Retrieved October 8, 2010, from
http://www.cbmus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=ortho
Orthopedic Impairments. Education.com. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://www.education.com/reference/article/orthopedic-impairments/
Orthopedic Impairments Introduction. (n.d.). National Association of
Parents of Children in Special Education. Retrieved October 1, 2010,
from
www.napcse.org/exceptionalchildren/orthopedicimpairments.php
Pictures retrieved from:
 http://www.horizonmagazine.com.au/?cat=9
 http://wwrc.virginia.gov/physicaltherapy.htm
 http://www.maryvillecityschools.k12.tn.us/education/com





ponents/scrapbook/default.php?sectiondetailid=14002&sc
_id=1184530038
http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/healthcareproviders/shepherd-center5.htm
http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos070.htm
http://wwrc.virginia.gov/assistivetech.htm
http://www.unitedspinal.org/publications/action/2007/05/
17/walking-in-space/
http://www.healingtherapies.info/laserpuncture.htm

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