Computer Basics 2 - Houston Public Library

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Computer Basics 2
Computer Basic 2 includes two lessons:
•Lesson 3: Computer Performance and Features
•Lesson 4: Computer Operation Systems
1
Lesson 3
Computer Performance and Features
Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
o Identify and compare the features of different
types of computers.
o Explain the role of memory.
o Explain the basics of computer performance and
how it relates to productivity.
o Describe the different types of productivity
programs and their uses.
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Types of Computers

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The most common computer is the Personal
Computer (PC).
A personal computer is a computer that is
designed for use by one person at a time.
There are four different types of computer:
 Desktop
 Laptop
 Handheld
 Tablet.
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Desktop Computers
o Are made up of individual components (monitor, a
keyboard, a system unit, and a printer).
o Are not portable.
o Components of desktop computers can easily be
replaced or upgraded.
o Have more memory, a larger hard drive, more ports,
and a bigger display than laptops and other portable
computers.
o Can run continuously for long periods of time.
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Laptop Computers
o Are lightweight personal computers.
o Are also called notebook computers.
o Are small and portable.
o Run on electricity or on batteries that can be
recharged.
o Consume more power than desktop computers.
o Perform the same tasks as desktop computers.
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Handheld Computers
o Are devices used for specific everyday tasks,
such as managing personal data.
o Are smaller than laptops and provide fewer
features compared to desktop computers or
laptops.
o Can also perform basic word-processing
activities and help you access the Internet.
o Several handheld computer models can also
work as cellular phones or digital cameras.
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Tablet Computers
o Are fully functional computers that allow you to write
directly on the screen by using a tablet pen.
o Can also use the tablet pen to perform mouse
functions.
o Do not need a keyboard and a mouse.
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The Role of Memory

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Is a device where information can be
stored and retrieved.
Can be volatile or nonvolatile
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The Role of Memory (cont.)


Volatile Memory: This is the temporary
memory of a computer.
Nonvolatile Memory: The content stored
on this type of memory is retained after
the computer is turned off.
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The Role of Memory (cont)
Terms used to measure memory capacity
Term
Description
Bit
Smallest unit of information that a
computer handles.
Byte
Combination of eight bits arranged in a
particular sequence.
Kilobyte
One kilobyte (KB) is equal to 1,024 bytes.
Megabyte
One megabyte (MB) is equal to 1,024 KB.
Gigabyte
One gigabyte (GB) is equal to 1,024 MB.
Terabyte
One terabyte is equal to 1,024 GB.
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Computer Performance
Important factors that affect the overall
performance of the computer:



CPU Speed
Hard Disk Factors
RAM
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CPU Speed
The CPU speed is the rate at which the CPU can
perform a task, such as moving data to and
from RAM, or performing a numerical
calculation.
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Hard Disk
Hard disks differ in storage capacities as well
as their speed of data storage and retrieval.

If the speed of data retrieval is fast, the
computer takes less time to start and to load
programs.

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RAM
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RAM is the active memory of the computer.
The speed of retrieving data stored on RAM is
very fast.
The RAM speed and the amount of RAM are
important factors in personal computer
performance.
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Productivity Programs
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You can use different computer programs to
perform a variety of tasks.
Types of productivity programs:
 Word-Processing and Publishing Programs
 Presentation Programs
 Spreadsheet Programs
 Database Programs
 Graphics Programs
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Word-Processing and Publishing
Programs
o These programs allow you:
 Type in and modify text.
 Use the spelling checker and the built-in
thesaurus, and format the document.
 Create personal and professional
documents.

Word is a commonly used word-processing
program.
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Presentation Programs
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You use presentation programs to present
your information in the form of slides.
You can add sound and pictures to these
slides to make them more attractive and
informative.
Microsoft Office PowerPoint® 2003 is a
commonly used presentation program.
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Spreadsheet Programs
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You use spreadsheet programs to create
budgets, manage accounts, perform
mathematical calculations, and convert
numerical data into charts and graphs.
Spreadsheets store information in a table, with
values spread over horizontal rows and
vertical columns.
Microsoft Office Excel® 2003 is an example of
a spreadsheet program.
Database Programs
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You use database programs to store and
manage data in an organized way.
You can also sort or search for the
information stored in a database.
An example of a database program is
Microsoft Office Access 2003.
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Graphics Programs
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You use graphics programs to create and
edit drawings.
You can also use these programs to
enhance photographs.
Microsoft Paint is an example of a
graphics program that allows you to
create drawings.
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Communication Programs
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Computers use special programs called
communication programs that allow you to send
and receive messages with other people in a
digital format.
Example of communication programs:
 E-mail messages (Hotmail, Yahoo, or Google)
 Chat programs (Yahoo! Messenger)
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E-mail messages

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Sending e-mail messages is the exchange of
messages from one computer user to another
computer user.
To send an e-mail message you must have:
An Internet connection.
An e-mail account.
The e-mail account of the person to whom
you want to send an e-mail.
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E-mail messages (cont.)
o
You can send both text and pictures
through e-mail.
o
E-mail messages is an instant way of
communication.
Chat programs
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Allows you to send and receive messages
immediately
Allow you to communicate with several
people at the same time.
A commonly used communication program is
MSN® Messenger.
Two other types of chat programs are voice
chat and video chat.
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Educational and Entertainment
Programs
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Educational software is used in classrooms,
offices, and homes.
Educational software is available on various
topics that are applicable to different age
groups.
Microsoft Encarta® is a widely used digital
encyclopedia that is available on both CD-ROM
and DVD-ROM.
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Lesson 4 – Computer Operating Systems
Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
o Explain the common functions of an operating
system.
o Identify the basic components of the Windows XP
user interface.
o Work with the Windows XP user interface within
programs.
o Manage files and folders in Microsoft® Windows®
Explorer.
o Perform basic file operations.
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Functions of an Operating System
1.
Provides a user interface (Icons and Menus).
2.
Provides utilities to configure your system
(Backup program and setup wizard).
3.
Helps manage computer resources.
4.
Helps secure data by controlling user access to
a computer.
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Components of a Windows user interface
o Desktop
o Taskbar
o Notification Area
o Start
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Working with Windows-Based Programs: Paint
Open a program
1. Click Start
2. Point to All Programs
3. Point to Accessories
4. Click Paint
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Working with Windows-Based Programs: Paint
Move a window
1. Point to the title
bar
2. Drag the title bar
3. Release the
mouse button
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Working with Windows-Based Programs: Paint
Menu Bar
o
A menu bar is a
rectangular bar,
usually at the top, in
which you can select
menus.
o
These menus contain
many commands to
perform various
functions in a program
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Working with Windows-Based Programs: Paint
Toolbar
o
A toolbar can be a
horizontal or vertical
block of on-screen
buttons or icons.
o
You can click these
buttons or icons to
give commands to the
program.
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Working with Windows-Based Programs: Paint
Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons
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Managing Files and Folders
Windows Explorer

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The Windows Explorer window is often divided
into two sections, called panes.
The pane on the left side, called the Folders
pane, displays the structure of drives and folders
on your computer.
The pane on the right is called the details pane.
It displays the contents of a drive or folder.
You can select folders from the list displayed in
the Folders pane to view its contents in the
details pane.
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Screenshot of Windows Explorer
Performing Basic File Operations
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Every file has an associated format that defines
the way data is stored in the file.
The file format is identified by a period (also
called a dot) appended to a file name, followed
by three or four letters.
The following are some of the more common file
formats:
 Word documents (.doc)
 Images (.gif and .jpg)
 Executable programs (.exe)
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 Multimedia files (.wma and others)
Performing Basic File Operations
(Cont.)
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When you open a file, the operating system
selects an appropriate program to display the
contents of the file based on the file format.
For example, when you open a Word document,
the operating system opens a word processor,
such as Word, to display the contents of the
document.
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Practices
Managing Files and Folders
Please follow these steps:
o Open Microsoft
Digital Literacy site
o Click on Computer
Basics module.
o Click on “Launch Elearning.
1
4
2
o Click on the “Play”
button.
o Follow steps on the
3
left screen.
Practices
Performing Basic File Operation
Please follow these steps:
o Open Microsoft
Digital Literacy site
o Click on Computer
Basics module.
1
o Click on “Launch Elearning.
4
2
o Click on the “Play”
button.
o Follow steps on the
3 left screen.
Questions
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