Year 6 Geography Revision Notes

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Year 6 Geography Revision Notes
Mapping Symbols
16 point compass
Four figure grid references
Let’s find grid square 21 31
To read a 4 figure grid reference go along to the line number
of the first 2 numbers and then go up to the line with the
second 2 numbers.
In order to give something a six-figure grid reference, imagine the larger square split
into one hundred smaller squares. Then add numbers 1 to 10 between the main lines.
26
25
77
78
To work out the six-figure grid reference, first go along the bottom line and calculate the first
three figures. Next, work out the last three figures by going up the side of the square.
26
9
8
So, the sixfigure grid
reference for
the church is
.....
7
6
5
4
253
3
773253
2
1
25
1
77
2
3
773
4
5
6
7
8
9
78
Can’t remember which lines to
use first?
Try to remember this phrase:
‘Go along the corridor,
then up the stairs’.
c. R. Langley
Measuring distance on a map
On the paper's edge
One method of measuring distance is to take a sheet of paper and place
the corner of a straight edge on your starting point. Now pivot the paper until
the edge follows the route that you want to take.
Step 1
Every time the route disappears or
moves away from the straight edge of
your paper, make a small mark on the
edge and pivot the paper so the edge
is back on course.
Step 2
Repeat this process until you reach
your destination.
Step 3
You should be left with a series of
marks along the edge of your paper.
You can now place the sheet against
the scale bar on your map.
The last mark you made will tell you
the real distance you need to travel.
Contour Patterns
MOUNTAIN RANGES
A CLIFF OR WATERFALL
Contour lines are used to show height on a
map. The closer the contours are together, the
steeper the slope. The further apart they are
the gentler the slope. By looking at contour
patterns, we are able to work out the
landscape
A FLAT-TOPPED MOUNTAIN
Weather & Climate
Britain’s Climate
• Temperatures are higher in summer
than in winter
• Temperature are warmer in the south
and colder further north.
• In winter, temperatures tend to be warmer in the
west and cooler in the east
• Britain’s climate is a maritime climate ie it is affected
by the sea.
• The North Atlantic Drift is a warm ocean current,
which raises the temperatures in the west, in the
winter.
• Different parts of the UK experience slightly different regional
climates.
• Northwest - cool summers, mild winters, heavy rain all year
• Northeast - cool summers, cool winters, steady rain all year
• Southeast - warm summers, mild winters, light rain all year,
especially summer
• Southwest - warm summers, mild winters, heavy rain all year,
especially winter
WEATHER SYMBOLS
Clear and Bright
Clear sky
Black, low level cloud
Sunny
Drizzle
Light rain (day and night
Partly cloudy
Light rain shower
Sunny intervals
Heavy rain
Hail
Heavy snow shower
Thundery shower
Temperature
Types of Rainfall
Stage 1.
Warm wet air is forced to rise
over high land.
Stage 2.
As the air rises it cools and
condenses. Clouds form and
precipitation occurs.
Stage 3.
The drier air descends and
warms.
Stage 4.
Any moisture in the air (e.g.
cloud) evaporates.
Stage 1.
The sun heats the ground and
warm air rises.
Stage 2.
As the air rises it cools and
condenses to form clouds.
Stage 3.
Large cumulonimbus
clouds are formed.
Stage 4.
Heavy rain storms occur. These
usually include thunder and
lightening
Stage 1.
An area of warm air meets and
area of cold air.
Stage 2.
The warm air is forced over
the cold air
Stage 3.
Where the air meets the warm
air is cooled and water vapour
condenses.
Stage 4.
Clouds form and precipitation
occurs
BUILDINGS
SURFACE
• Absorb heat & Reflect
sunlight
•Provide
shelter form the
BUILDINGS
wind
•Can create shadows which
lowers the temp.
• Man made surfaces
absorb heat (tar,
concrete, bricks)
•Natural surfaces like
grass are cooler
MICROCLIMATES CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN A
SMALL AREA which are
different to the
surrounding area
PHYSICAL
FEATURES
• Mountains = colder
temperatures because of
the altitude
•Water features lower
temperatures
SHELTER
ASPECT
• The direction of an object
in relation to the sun
•Directly facing the sun
makes it hotter, in shadow
makes it colder
• Buildings, Fences,
hedges, trees can all
provide shelter from
the wind, making the
it slightly warmer
Coastal erosion
Erosion works in four ways:
• Hydraulic action - this results from the force of the water hitting the cliffs. Air,
•
•
•
trapped in cracks, is compressed under high pressure, which breaks the rocks
apart.
Corrasion - this is caused by the waves picking up stones and hurling them at the
cliffs.
Corrosion [solution] - the dissolving of rocks by sea water. (Chalk and limestone)
Attrition - any material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller
over time.
Headlands and bays
The shape of a coastline is often
determined by its geology.(the rocks
which make up the coastline)
Some coastlines are very dramatic, with
tall, vertical cliffs whilst others are
straight for miles and miles whilst others
are indented with many headlands and
bays.
When there are different rock-types
along the coast, they may vary in their
resistance to erosion. Some rock is
harder and erodes more slowly forming
headlands. Other rock is softer and
erodes more easily forming bays .
Coastal features
Longshore Drift
Groynes
Waves approach beach
at an angle
Sediment builds up
due to Longshore Drift
If the wind blows so that waves come in at a sharp
angle to the coast, the swash carries the pebbles at
an angle up the beach. When the backwash moves
by gravity back down the beach, the pebbles end up
at a different position. This process is repeated and
pebbles gradually shift along the beach, a process
called longshore drift.
Formation of a Spit

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