Global citizenship and Art, design, and performing arts Dr Eldrid Herrington Head of the International Student Experience London College of Fashion University of the Arts London [email protected] Workshop aims • Examine how becoming global citizens is enacted through shared learning experiences • How excellent teaching constructs learning experiences to develop global citizens • Define ‘global citizen’ for UK and international students studying in the arts • Consider how institutions, faculty, departments promote ‘global citizenship’ Structure 1. What is ‘global citizenship’? 2. What is ‘global citizenship’ for art, design and the performing arts? 3. How do institutions, faculty, departments promote ‘global citizenship’? Who am I? • Localize my understanding of global citizenship: – Experience – Role – Cultural context(s) Schools at LCF School of Design and Technology School of Management and Science School of Media and Communication Graduate School Academic Development and Quality Assurance UAL and its Colleges Central St Martins (CSM) London College of Fashion (LCF) London College of Communication (LCC) Camberwell, Chelsea, Wimbledon (CCW) Degree courses at UAL International students at UAL • 18,678 students • 9,080 (49%) non-UK; UK = 9,598 (51%) • Non-UK by level of study: – FE 55% – UG 44% – PG 67% • 120 countries • UG level: – 88% non-UK retained – 83% of UK students retained (UCPU, 2014) WHAT IS GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP? What is global citizenship? • US context • Humanities and the liberal arts – Academy, eg AAC&U – Intellectual traditions • UK context – HEA – National universities – Intellectual traditions: cultural studies • Internationalization and multiculturalism • Global cultural economy in universities: 2% population mobility Martha Nussbaum: global citizenship • the ability to think for oneself, deferring neither to tradition nor to authority; • to think like a "citizen of the world," understanding global problems in a nuanced manner; [see Cultivating Humanity (1997)] • to cultivate an empathic imagination and see the world from the perspectives of many types of people. – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ocJ0zVmWMkg Kwame Anthony Appiah: cosmopolitanism Cosmopolitanism 1. We are all responsible for the human community 2. Encounters with other people are not about making them like us Critiques: Elitist (able to travel the globe) or bad nationalist (prefer human to national) (Appiah, 2007) AAC&U, Shared Futures: Global Learning and Social Responsibility Global learning helps students: • Gain a deep, comparative knowledge of the world’s peoples and problems; • Explore the historical legacies that have created the dynamics and tensions of their world; • Develop intercultural competencies so they can move across boundaries and unfamiliar territory and see the world from multiple perspectives; • Sustain difficult conversations in the face of highly emotional and perhaps uncongenial differences; • Understand—and perhaps redefine—democratic principles and practices within a global context; • Gain opportunities to engage in practical work with fundamental issues that affect communities not yet well served by their societies; • Believe that their actions and ideas will influence the world in which they live. http://www.aacu.org/SharedFutures/documents/SharFutFinal2.pdf HEA • Teaching International Students • Special Interest Group: Global Citizenship and Internationalisation of the Curriculum – Special Interest Sub-Group – art, design and performing arts • Internationalising the curriculum framework consultation Stuart Hall • The global and the local • Circuit(s) of culture • Issues of representation GC: debates Advocates • Employability in an increasingly globalized economy • Ethics and sustainability • Curriculum as reflecting students’ identities and therefore engaging them • Extension of subject knowledges and research Detractors • makes no sense without nation-state • Too broad to be workable, too relativistic • About political and cultural imperialism • Risk of only viewing issues through national lenses (Ali, 2009) Globalcitizenship Transcultural identifications call for the creation of images that represent particular groups and individuals within those groups. In this process concepts such as gender, race, ethnicity and culture also get deconstructed (Hall, 1996), and new, multiple, shifting and hybrid identities emerge. (Ali, 2009) Hidden curriculum • How cultural frameworks have shaped students’ individual understandings of the world • Localglobal • Locations within global cultural flows (Appadurai, 1990) • Increased understanding entails increased commitment Natalia Osipova (see Sulcas and Cooper, 2013) WHAT DOES GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP HAVE TO DO WITH ART AND DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE? Nicholas Serota on Global Citizenship at the Tate (2013) • Art is a fundamental part of the public realm. In their work, artists express ideas, attitudes and beliefs. Often, these are central to politics, society and economics and, through artistic expression, they gain different resonance and reach. At Tate Modern, for instance, the juxtaposition of Leon Golub’s Vietnam II and Dia Al-Azzawi’s Sabra and Shatila Massacre prompts deep thought about the scars of war. • Museums and galleries provide spaces in which learning both through and about art can take place. They build and show collections that bring different views together and introduce new ideas and experiences. Recently, Tate has developed its collections of international art, introducing audiences to a wider range of conversations. (Serota, 2013) globalisation • Disrupts the linear relationship between local and global: art forms are no longer located in one culture • challenges the centrality of the Western art canon • decenters nation-states as the primary center of economic activity as transnational corporations form networks that yield more economic power; • facilitates transnationalization of production or subcontracting of goods and services, including artistic production, around the world; • spawns an increasingly nomadic community of artists, curators, and collectors who travel the world creating site-specific artworks, global exhibitions, and producing various economies of art; • simultaneously homogenizes the world socially, culturally, and economically while creating unprecedented fragmentation, and; • complicates the ways in which people experience cultural and national identities, making difference a normative aspect of our lives (Desai, 2005) Transnational corporations and art exhibitions The relationship between art and globalization, then, is one that challenges the centrality of the Western art canon, yet both the blockbuster art exhibitions and the festivals re-affirm national culture by simultaneously celebrating and commodifying difference. (Desai, 2005) exemplars of global citizenship When Latitudes Become Forms (2002) Venice Bienniale (2003) Documenta 10 (1997) Documenta 11 (2002) UAL and LCF contexts WHY GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP? Why global citizenship? • • • • • Breaks away from ‘international’/UK divide Ensures an articulation of the implied student Emphasizes active commitment Compels an uncovering of the hidden curriculum; Draws on students’ cultural capital and experiences; multicultural • Considerations beyond the national • Addresses creativity Steve McQueen: considerations of the stateless Yinka Shonibare We must resist the ‘temptation of defining artists by the narrow confines of nationality...the question of globalization and its political significance of course remains relevant in an economically divided world. But we must return now to the work of the imagination and prioritize the aesthetic and political concerns of artists rather than their origins’ (Shonibare in Desai, 2005) University of the Arts London Strategy 2010 – 2015 Aim • To become a truly international university by building closer academic partnerships with institutions outside the UK, attracting a multicultural staff and student community and developing a curriculum that sustains our global role. Key Performance Indicators • Number of University-wide partnerships established • Number of international students GC: structure and strategy Learning and teaching methods Curriculum content Organizational priorities and support structures (visualised from Leask, 2009) LCF: how • • • • • • • • • • • • • Articulation of institutional policy around GC and IoC through papers on Internationalisation and diversification of the curriculum, which have formed the basis of an action plan Global Citizen award for staff and for students is being developed Ringfencing time for curriculum development Increased staff presence in international conferences with funded support Input into professional development with the LCF Assistant Dean of Learning and Teaching and with the UAL Office of Development and Learning Just-in-time assistance with practical issues for all staff at the College ‘Local’, school-based experts and enthusiasts: International Coordinators in each School Active links/collaboration with international employers and professional associations through LCF Careers staff maintain contact with international industry settings A strong and culturally diverse course/program team Individuals’ international experience and personal commitment to and understanding of GC: captured and shared for both students (as today) and staff A balanced discourse around internationalisation that does not privilege the economic rationale A balanced and comprehensive international strategy in both policy and practice (Adapted from Leask 2012) student experience: why and how Alicia and Hena •‘Home’ / ‘International’ divide does not make sense •Not just fact of being international but of becoming international •Alicia channelling Stuart Hall: ‘I am becoming a global citizen’ •Alicia’s and Hena’s global citizenship impacts upon their: –Subject knowledge / practice –Peers –Achievement –Mobility –Employability bibliography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ali, M. (2009) ‘Preparing citizens for a globalized world: The role of the social studies curriculum’, Interamerican Journal of Education for Democracy. Vol 2 (2): 238-256. Appiah, K. A. (2007) Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. New York: Penguin. Banks, J. (2008) ‘Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age’. Educational Researcher, 37(3): 129-139. Bianchi, J. (2011) "Intercultural Identities: Addressing the Global Dimension through Art Education", International Journal of Art and Design Education, vol. 30 (2): 279-292 Desai, D. (2005) "Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy", Studies in Art Education, vol. 46 (4): 293-308. Gaudelli, W. and Hewitt, R. (2010) "The Aesthetic Potential of Global Issues Curriculum", The Journal of Aesthetic Education, vol. 44 (2): 83-99. Hall, S. (1996) ‘Introduction: Who needs ‘identity’?’ In S. Hall and P. du Gay (Eds.) Questions of cultural identity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kymlicka, W. (2003) ‘Multicultural states and intercultural citizens’. Theory and Research in Education, 1(2): 147169. Leask, B. (2009). ‘Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students’. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(2), 205-221. Leask, B. (2012) ‘Questionnaire on Internationalisation of the Curriculum’. Available at http://www.ioc.net.au/main/course/view.php?id=2 Mendoza, H.R. and Matyók, T. (2013) "Designing Student Citizenship: Internationalised Education in Transformative Disciplines", International Journal of Art and Design Education, vol. 32 (2): 215-225. Nussbaum, M. (1997) Cultivating Humanity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Serota, N. (2013) ‘Nicholas Serota on Global Citizenship: a reminder of art’s role in society’, 3 June. Available at http://www.tate.org.uk/context-comment/articles/nicholas-serota-on-global-citizenship-a-reminder-of-artsrole-in-society Sovic, S. and Blythman, M. (2012) International Students Negotiating Higher Education. London: Routledge. Sulcas, R. and Cooper, M. (2013) ‘Ballet Dancers as Brands’, New York Times, 20 November. Wood, P. (2008) ‘The impossibility of global citizenship’. In M. O’Sullivan and K. Pashby (Eds.) Citizenship education in the era of globalization. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. HEA Global Citizenship SIG 1. Does your institution have an institutional strategy that encourages the development of global citizenship? 2. Is there an institutional definition/website devoted to the development of global citizenship? Eg UCL 3. If not - have notions of global citizenship been addressed by any Faculties/departments in terms of their learning objectives? or 4. Are approaches to engendering Global Citizenship threaded through modules or offered via separate modules? 5. Are these modules offered as credit bearing modules or co-curricular schemes or both? 6. Is student mobility used to develop global citizenship eg: Erasmus? Joint/dual degrees 7. Are students encouraged to take modules in global citizenship? Or are they compulsory? 8. Is language learning embedded in the curriculum? 9. Do Faculty/ departmental websites promote the development of global citizenship? 10. Does your institution have Research Centres/Institutes focused on research into issues surrounding global citizenship? Bamford et al. (2013) ‘HEA SIG: Global Citizenship & the Curriculum Theme Group’ [poster] Questions for discussion 1. What is ‘global citizenship’? 2. What is ‘global citizenship’ for art, design and the performing arts? 3. How do institutions, faculty, departments promote ‘global citizenship’?