Six Minute Solution

Report
Six Minute Solution
Diane Newman
[email protected]
Goals
1. To understand what fluency is and
how it impacts reading.
2. To understand the rationale and
research behind reading fluency
and the Six Minute Solution
program.
3. To understand and be able to use
Six Minute Solution Program.
Agenda
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What is Fluency?
Research and Rationale
Assessments
Selecting fluency partners and instructional groups
Introducing the fluency concept
Establishing partner behavior
Training students in the partnership model
Managing materials
Student progress and record keeping
Comprehension and writing strategies
Conclusion: more than six minutes a day
Reading: 5 Big Ideas
Elementary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Alphabetic Principle
Phonemic Awareness
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension
Reading: 5 Big Ideas
Secondary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Word Study
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension
Motivation
Automaticity is…
• Performance of a skill without conscious
thought
• Necessary for proficiency
• Improved through practice, perfect practice
Automaticity in Reading
• Frees up cognitive space for
comprehension and critical thinking
• Leads to enjoyable reading
Fluency
• Fluency provides a bridge between word
recognition and comprehension
• Proficient readers are so automatic with each
component skill (phonological awareness,
decoding, vocabulary) that they focus their
attention on constructing meaning from the
print
(National Institute for Literacy 2001)
(Kahn and Stahl 2000)
Dysfluent Readers
1. Students who struggle with
underlying skill deficits, such as
decoding and word recognition.
2. Students who have adequate skills,
but are slow at word and text
reading.
Strategies for Fluency
•
Phrase-cued Reading
•
Alternate Oral Reading
•
Simultaneous Oral Reading
•
Reader’s Theatre
•
Choral Reading
•
Round Robin Reading
•
Repeated Readings
Rereading to Build Fluency
• “Practice Makes Perfect”
• Repeated Reading Research
(Levy, Nichools,& Kroshen, 1993; Meyer &
Felton, 1999; Samuels, 1979)
• Six Minute Solution is based on repeated
reading research
• Research also supports students’ reading skills
improve when they work with peers in
structured reading activities
Decoding and Fluency
• In order to read fluently the reader must be
able to decode the vast majority of words
automatically with approximately 95%
accuracy
• While fluency helps improve decoding it is not
sufficient to remediate an underlying
decoding problem
Independent Reading & Fluency
• Students that are fluent generally find reading
to be pleasurable and therefore read more
• Reading more increases reading related skills,
vocabulary, background knowledge, decoding,
and fluency skills
• The rich get richer and the poor get poorer,
the “Matthew Effect”
In 10 minutes of independent reading…
 A fluent reader might
read 2,000 words
 A struggling reader might
read only 500 words
Equal practice time, unequal practice
Work Completion & Fluency
• Think of the amount of reading assigned in
upper elementary, middle school, and high
school
• Both students are assigned the same amount
of reading
• The student who reads 180 wpm will
complete their work in two hours while a
student who reads 60 wpm will need six hours
to complete the same text
Reading Achievement and Fluency
Practice
• We have the tools and knowledge to change
the statistics! (44% of fourth graders were not
fluent according to NAEP scores)
• Fluency can be taught.
• “Guided, repeated, oral reading procedures
are appropriate and valuable avenues for
increasing reading fluency and overall reading
achievement.” (National Reading Panel 2000)
• I do it, we do it, ya’ll do it, you do it.
So how are we supposed to
help these kids?
“Never, never think outside
the Box !”
Six Minute Solution Overview
Time
Materials
Procedures
1 minute
Timer
Get Ready
Folder containing two
Teacher announces that
copies of the same
fluency timing will begin
passage, two copies of the
fluency graph, on dry erase
marker and cloth
1 minute
Partner 1 Reads
1 minute
Partner 2 Gives Feedback
1 minute
Partner 2 Reads
1 minute
Partner 1 Gives Feedback
1 minute
Students put away
materials
Six Minute Solution Books
Grades
Interventions
Passage Reading
Levels
Primary
K-2
1-3
1-3
Intermediate
3-6
3-8
1-6
Secondary
6-9
6-12
4-9
Primary: Step 1 - Assessments
Assessment is critical in determining students’:
1. Knowledge of phonetic elements (6 Phonetic
Elements Assessments: letter/sounds, CVC short, blends and digraphs,
vowel combinations, CVC with distractors, “r” controlled vowels )
2. Level of sight-word acquisition (Automatic Words
Assessment)
3. Oral reading rate on a grade-level passage
(Passage Assessments, AIMSweb or DIBELS fluency scores)
4. Instructional reading level (San Diego Quick)
Assessment: Phonetic Elements
What do you need
• Approximately 2 - 5 min./student
• Copies of a Student Copy of selected subtest
Select the appropriate list based on your best estimate of student knowledge.
Ex. A kindergarten teacher might select the Letters and Sounds subtest at
beginning of school year; a first grade teacher may select the CVC Short Vowel
Patterns subtest at the same point in the year
• Teacher Record Sheet for each student being
assessed
• Highlighter or marking pen for the teacher
Primary Assessment:
Phonetic Elements Assessment
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Give the student a Student Copy of selected subtest
Instruct the student to say the letter name, the letter sound, or
the word depending on the subtest being administered
Follow along, track the correct responses as well as the errors
allowing only three seconds per subtest item before marking it
incorrect. You are assessing for automatic knowledge of phonemic
elements, which is the goal of this program.
Continue administering the subtests until the student’s accuracy
rate drops below 90%
Record their student’s individual instructional-level list number on
the Class Record Sheet.
Phonetic Elements Assessments in Primary book p. 68-86
Assessment: Automatic Words
What do you need
• Approximately 2.5 min./student
• Two copies of a Student Copy of selected word
list (select the appropriate list based on your best estimate
of student knowledge)
• Teacher Record Sheet for each student being
assessed
• Highlighter or marking pen for the teacher
Primary Assessment:
Automatic Words by Ten
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Give the student a Student Copy of word list
Instruct the student to read the words quickly and carefully
Follow along, drawing a line through any word the student does
not read correctly within three seconds, and record errors at the
bottom of the word list(s).
When a student misses one word on any list, stop. This is the list
number that the student should begin practicing.
Record their student’s individual instructional-level list number on
the Class Record Sheet. This sheet will help form instructional
groups.
Handout p. 40
Automatic Assessment sheets in Primary book p. 87-95
Primary/Intermediate/Secondary Assessments
Step 1: Fluency and Instructional Reading Level
Assessment is critical in determining fluency
partnerships and appropriate reading levels
1. Give each student a one minute timing on a grade
level passage to determine oral fluency rate
2. Give each student a test to determine instructional
reading level (91-96% accuracy)
- San Diego Quick, silent reading test or a
passage placement accuracy test
Oral Fluency Assessment sheets in Intermediate book p. 59-64 and Secondary book p. 58-63
San Diego Quick Assessment sheets in Intermediate book p. 66-68 and Secondary book p. 65-67
Assessment 1: Fluency
What do you need
• Approximately 2.5 min./student
• Two copies of a grade-level fluency
assessment passage
• Data sheet for the teacher to record correct
wpm (oral fluency rate)
• Timer, clipboard, marking pen
Guidelines for Counting WCPM
 Count a word read correctly as correct.
 Don't say the correct word after the student has said an incorrect
word.
 Wait three seconds before supplying a word to a student who is
stuck.
Errors
Not Errors
• Mispronunciations and dropped
endings
• Omissions
• Mispronunciations or dropped
endings due to dialect or speech
problems
• Out of sequence (count as two
errors)
• Repetitions
• Insertions
• Words supplied by teachers
• Self-corrections
• Substitutions with synonyms
• Repeated errors are counted each
time
Curriculum-Based Norms in Oral Reading Fluency
*WCPM = Words Correct Per Minute
Hasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G. A. (2006, April). Oral Reading Fluency Norms: A Valuable Assessment Tool for Reading
Teachers. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 636–644.
Conducting a One-Minute Timing
Handout p. 16 passage
Handout p. 20 Hasbrouck & Tindal Chart
Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment Record
Assessment 2:
Instructional Reading Level
What do you need
•Approximately 2.5 min./student
•Materials to determine instructional reading
level (passage placement accuracy test, word recognition test (San Diego
Quick, group silent reading test)
•Data sheet for the teacher to record
instructional reading level
Passage Placement Accuracy Test:
What do you need
Determining Reading Levels Chart
(Using a 100-word passage)
Passage Errors Allowed
Passage Reading Level
Comprehension Level
3 or fewer errors
Independent (97% - 100%)
Good to Excellent
4 - 9 errors
Instructional (91% - 96%)
Good to Satisfactory
10 or more errors
Frustration (90% & below)
Satisfactory/Fair/Poor
Conduct an Instructional Reading
Level Test
San Diego Quick Assessment
Handout p. 11-13 San Diego Quick Assessment
Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment Record
Step 2 - Selecting Fluency Partners
• Partnering appropriately is essential to the
success of the program
• Match students as closely as possible by both
oral fluency rates and instructional reading
levels
Selecting Fluency Partners
Materials:
Fluency data for each student
A student ranking sheet or computer
spreadsheet program that generates ranking
order
Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment Record
Selecting Fluency Partners
• Fluency rates should be within 10-15 words of
each other – within 10 words at the primary
level
• Rank by fluency and by instructional reading
level
• 1 and 2, 3 and 4 would be partners, and so on
Initial Assessment Record
Teacher__Mrs. Newman_______________
Class_____Reading Strategies__ Date March 2013_____
Student Name
Assessment
1-Oral Reading Rate (CWPM)
Assessment
2- Instructional Reading Level
Jeremy
67
4th
Jon
68
4th
Lisa
75
4th
Kendra
78
4th
Stacie
80
4th
Joe
86
4th
Sean
86
4th
Erin
90
4th
Kara
91
5th
Craig
92
5th
Scott
99
5th
Sue
100
5th
Selecting Instructional Grouping
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Entire classrooms
Small groups
Individual fluency programs
Parent-student partnerships
Cross-age partnerships
Troubleshooting Partners
• Absenteeism
• Odd number of students
• One child who is far below all the others in
reading ability
• Students who read less than 40 cwpm most
likely need to increase sight vocabulary –
automatic word lists (handout p. 38)
• Noise Level
Step 3 Introducing the Fluency Concept
Set aside 30 minutes for lesson
1. Introduce the concept of fluency using activity
procedure or scripted procedure (in book).
2. Select the Practice Passage for demonstration.
Explain the practice passage and model reading
fluency procedure.
Rationale reduces resistance!
Introducing the Fluency Concept
What is Reading Fluency?
The ability to read text:
• Accurately
• Quickly
• With expression
Introducing the Fluency Concept
It is directly related to:
• Reading comprehension
• Independent reading
• Work comprehension
Modeling the fluency procedure
• Select practice passage for demonstration
(match to lowest level of readability in the
class)
• Explain one minute timing
• Demonstrate whisper reading and tracking
with finger or pen, underline unknown words
• Figure CWPM
• Graph scores
Explicitly model
Introducing the Fluency Concept
Demonstration –
Teacher Models:
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Track words with finger or pen
Underline unknown words
Timer sounds, draw bracket around last word read
Count the number of words
Count the number of unknown words
Find CWPM
Graph score
Students whisper read two times while timed to compare scores.
Step 4 –
Establishing Partner Behavior
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Set aside 10 minutes
Instruct on appropriate fluency behavior
Providing appropriate corrective feedback
Noise level
No arguing rule
Use activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book)
You model partnership
Students practice partnership
When working in partners, , #1 should be the stronger reader and read first. Students
are not told this.
Step 5 - Training Students in the
Partnership Procedure
• Set aside 30 minutes for 3 days
• Put students in any partnership
• Model the fluency partnership using an overhead with a
student
• Model the procedure of marking errors and noting the
stopping point
• Model the error-correction procedure
“You read__________(total # of ) words. I heard _______ (# of ) errors.”
• Model how to calculate the cwpm and graph score
• Use activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book)
Training Students in the
Partnership Procedure
Demonstration
Handout p. 32-37, 41 Passages
Step 6 –
Managing Materials
Set aside 10 minutes
Pocket Portfolio for each partnership
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2 copies of practice passage
Transparency
Fluency graphs
Zip lock bag
Dry erase marker
Eraser
Monitoring
Accountability
Step 7 –
Student Progress and Record Keeping
• Check for reading progress at the instructional
level not at grade level
• Check students Fluency Graphs for
-Is adequate progress being made?
-Do students have the appropriate passage?
- Are the partnerships appropriate?
- Is it an appropriate time to increase the difficulty
level of the practice passage being used by partners?
Building Phonetic Elements
Fluency
Step 1: Presentation of New Phonetic Element
 Model or teach new phonetic element or pattern. Hold up a card
“This letter says___.” “What letters make up this element? ____”
“What does this element say?___” “Say its sound with me.__”
“Say it by yourselves.___”
Step 2: Group Practice of New Phonetic Element
Step 3: Independent Practice of the New Phonetic Element
Step 4: Review Phonetic Elements
Use the Phonetic Elements Fluency Building Sheets
 Small group and partner practice
Primary book Chapter 10 p. 55-58
Building Automatic Words Fluency
Day 1: Introduce 5 of the set of 10 words.
 Introduce each word by using a flash card
“This word is___. What word? ____ Say the letters in this word with
me. What do these letters spell? Say the word again with me.”
 Practice new automatic words – magnetic letters, word walls, white
boards, write in uppercase letters, lowercase letters, four corners of
your white boards
Day 2: Introduce the next 5 words.
 Review yesterday’s 5 words.
 Introduce new words using the same procedure as day 1.
 Review of automatic words using flash cards, magnetic letters,
memory game, mixing up letters to making the words again
Building Automatic Words Fluency
Partner Practice:
• Assign partners based on assessment results p. 95 in Primary Book
• Train students in the Six Minute Solution Primary fluency concept
• Provide time each day for partner practice with Automatic Words Fluency
Building Sheets
• Have partners record their own scores on an Automatic Words Record
Graph
When students can accurately read their assigned list of automatic words
at 60 CWPM, they should be moved to the next list of automatic words
with the introduction, instruction and practice cycle all over again.
Let’s Practice
• Example 1: Kevin’s Fluency Graph
Handout p. 25
• Example 2: Sarita’s Fluency Graph
Handout p. 26
How to help a student who is not
making progress
1. Check instructional reading level
2. Read the practice passage with the student to make
sure that the student is placed appropriately
3. Provide additional practice with the automatic word
lists
4. Go a grade level below
5. Check decoding skills – may need extra instruction
6. Carefully monitor
7. Consider a strategic partnership
8. Give extra untimed practice
Step 8 - Comprehension and
Summary Writing Strategies
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Summarizing
Paraphrasing
Retelling
Describing
Expository Sequence Structure
Summary Writing Strategies
More than Six Minutes a Day
• On the first day of the week
• Some students may need additional fluency
practice
• Certain grouping configurations
• Incorporating comprehension and writing
Mondays
• Distribute new Practice Passage
• Preview the passage and underline unknown
words
• Teacher supplies unknown words
• Make sure students are accurate before
beginning
• First Timing
• Word Walls
Tuesday – Thursday
• Six minutes a day
• More if you want to include comprehension
and writing
• More if needed
Friday
•Final Timing
•Turn in current week’s practice passage
•Select new passage for following week
Teacher Duties
• Change partners if necessary
• Move students up or down in reading levels
• Monitor student reading and provide
corrective feedback
• Monitor progress
• Use check list to ensure fidelity
Moving Upstream:
A Story of Prevention and Intervention
In a small town, a group of fishermen gathered
down at the river. Not long after they got
there, a child came floating down the rapids
calling for help. One of the group on shore
quickly dived in and pulled the child out.
Minutes later another child came, then
another, and then many more children were
coming down the river. Soon everyone was
diving in and dragging children to the shore,
then jumping back in to save as many as they
could.
In the midst of all this frenzy, one of the group was seen
walking away. Her colleagues were irate. How could she
leave when there were so many children to save? After
long hours, to everyone’s relief, the flow of children
stopped, and the group could finally catch their breath.
At that moment, their colleague came back.
They turned on her and angrily shouted:
“HOW COULD YOU WALK OFF WHEN WE NEEDED
EVERYONE HERE TO SAVE THE CHILDREN?”
She replied, “It occurred to me that someone
ought to go upstream and find out why so many
kids were falling into the river. What I found is
that the old wooden bridge had several planks
missing, and when some children tried to jump
over the gap, they couldn’t make it and fell
through into the
river. So I got someone to fix the bridge.”
Let’s Try it!
Six Minute Solution Overview
Time
Materials
Procedures
1 minute
Timer
Get Ready
Folder containing two
Teacher announces that
copies of the same
fluency timing will begin
passage, two copies of the
fluency graph, on dry erase
marker and cloth
1 minute
Partner 1 Reads
1 minute
Partner 2 Gives Feedback
1 minute
Partner 2 Reads
1 minute
Partner 1 Gives Feedback
1 minute
Students put away
materials
Exit Slip
Goals:
1. To understand what fluency is and how it
impacts reading.
2. To understand the rationale and research
behind reading fluency and the Six
Minute Solution program.
3. To understand and be able to use Six
Minute Solution Program.
Thank you!
[email protected]

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