(Bhatt et al., 2011). - Nova Southeastern University

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Intro to Using Elluminate
Welcome!
If you’ve never used Elluminate:
• Consider running the Audio Setup Wizard found
under Tools > Audio > Audio Setup Wizard
• Consider changing how you view tonight’s
session in View > Layouts (mouse over
“Layouts” to see the different options)
• Have a piece of paper and pencil available!
Johanna Tunon
Johanna Tunon
[email protected]
APA Workshop
AgendaAgenda
• Formatting documents
• Advanced details about formatting text and
reference citations
• Page numbers
• Acronyms
• Proper names
• Formatting of slang versus definitions
• Wrapping up
Disable Auto-Formatting in Word
Before you type a word:
• Go to Format
• Lines and Page Breaks
• Uncheck first 4 boxes
It is OK to turn off
Widow/Orphan control.
In Word 2007, 1) select No Spacing, 2) adjust font & size
2.
1.
.
In Word 2003, the font size default is
already set to Times New Roman 12
• 1½ inch left
margin for
dissertation.
• For the final
dissertation
report, use a
ruler
Tip: Try setting
bottom margin
at 0.95 inches.
• Tables and
appendices MUST
have correct margins!
Margins
See ARC document,
Tips for Correct Margins
http://www.schoolofed.nova.edu/arc/
word/margins.doc
2
What Students Need to Know
About APA
Laura Lucio Ramirez
Use the most recent
version of the ARC
template!
An Applied Dissertation Submitted to the
Fischler School of Education
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Education
Nova Southeastern University
2012
Pagination
• Use roman numerals in
first section for
Acknowledgments,
Abstract, and TOC – at
bottom in the middle of
the page
Pagination in Body of Paper
• Page numbers go in
upper right-hand
corner
• Use a section break to
divide the paper into
sections to change
from roman
numerals at bottom to
numbers in upper
right
Pagination in Word 2007
• Page numbers go in
upper right-hand
corner
• Use a section break to
divide the paper into
sections to change
from roman
numerals at bottom to
numbers in upper
right
Table of Contents
• Do NOT use a row of
periods in the TOC!
Need to use a “dot
leader”.
• Use the FSE template!
Running headers?
1
APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments
• Page #s
• Double
spaced
• Indented
• Left
justified
• No
underlining
• Bolding for
some
headings.
Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title
page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes,
tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within
references but double spacing between references (see Publication
Manual, p. 323).
Major headings are centered. The first word of the heading
is capitalized as well as all major words. Articles, short
prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions, however, are not
capitalized (Falcao, 2005).
Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers
alike need to pay attention to using subheadings. For example,
Headings
--APA (6th ed.) , p. 62
Use Level 1 Headings
Level 2 – Flush Left, Bold, Upper and
Lower Case Side Heading
Level 3 is indented, italicized, uses
lowercase, and ends with a period.
APA Headings
1
APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments
Title
Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title
page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes,
tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within
references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326
of the Publication Manual.)
Level 1
Issues
to Consider
Issues
to Consider
Major headings require specific formatting: (a) The first word of
the heading is capitalized as well as all major words; (b) articles,
short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not
capitalized; and (c) the heading is not italicized.
Formatting
FormattingofofPaper
Paper
There are exceptions for dissertation. Other
issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers need to
Level 2
APA headings
should not
be confused
with Word’s
formatting
levels.
APA Headings
1
APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments
Title
Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title
page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes,
tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within
references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326
of the Publication Manual.)
Level 1
Issues
to Consider
Issues
to Consider
Major headings require specific formatting: (a) The first word of
the heading is capitalized as well as all major words; (b) articles,
short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not
capitalized; and (c) the heading is not italicized.
Formatting
FormattingofofPaper
Paper
There are exceptions for dissertation. Other
issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers need to
Level 2
Level 2
This is not
numbered so do not
use
a colon.
Definition
of
Terms
Formatting definitions
For the purposes of this study,
the following terms are defined.
Level 3
Information literacy. This phrase refers to a
set of standards approved by …
Outcomes. For the purposes of this applied
dissertation, outcome refers to ….
Assessment. This term refers to …
Italicized -- APA, p. 91
Note bolding and period after word or phrase being defined when using
Level 3 format. Use complete sentence(s) for the definition of the term
or phrase.
Appendices
• Must have correct margins and
all pages in appendices must be
numbered
• Each appendix must have an individual
cover page
• Do not include any appendices that are
not mentioned in the text.
• Appendices are numbered
chronologically in the same order as
they are first mentioned in the
dissertations.
• Do not include IRB information
• If there is only one appendix, just use
Appendix,
not Appendix A
Repeated References to a Specific
Source
• Citing author’s name in the narrative and when used
in parenthetical text citations:
Long (2009) conducted a correlational study. Long found a
relation between media specialists with a transformational
leadership style and a collaborative instructional relationship
with teachers. The findings supported .... (Long, 2009).
APA manual, pp. 175-176
When Citing a Source With Several
Authors
Example:
List all 2-5 authors
first time in paper.
Bhatt, Jenson, Casey, and Vandenputty (2011) found….
Bhatt et al. (2011) concluded that…. However, Bhatt et al.
experienced some problems with…. The findings were
statistically significant (Bhatt et al., 2011).
Bhatt et al. (2011) checked for…. Bhatt et al. challenged
previous findings on…. Triangulation of data confirmed…
(Bhatt et al., 2011).
APA manual, pp. 175-176
When Citing a Source With Several
Authors
Example:
Use et al, and include the year.
Bhatt, Jenson, Casey, and Vandenputty (2011) found….
Bhatt et al. (2011) concluded that…. However, Bhatt et al.
experienced some problems with…. The findings were
statistically significant (Bhatt et al., 2011).
Bhatt et al. (2011) checked for…. Bhatt et al. challenged
previous findings on…. Triangulation of data confirmed…
(Bhatt et al., 2011).
APA manual, pp. 175-176
When Citing a Source With Several
Authors
Example:
Do not include year for subsequent names
|in the body of the paragraph.
Bhatt, Jenson, Casey, and Vandenputty (2011) found….
Bhatt et al. (2011) concluded that…. However, Bhatt et al.
experienced some problems with…. The findings were
statistically significant (Bhatt et al., 2011).
However,
always
include
date
Bhatt et al. (2011) checked for….
Bhatt
et al.
challenged
in parenthetical citations whether it is
previous findings on…. Triangulation
of data confirmed…
the first or last time.
(Bhatt et al., 2011).
APA manual, pp. 175-176
When Citing a Source With Several
Authors
Example:
Bhatt, Jenson, Casey, and Vandenputty (2011) found….
Bhatt et al. (2011) concluded that…. However, Bhatt et al.
experienced some problems with…. The findings were
statistically significant (Bhatt et al., 2011).
Bhatt et al. (2011) checked for…. Bhatt et al. challenged
previous findings on…. Triangulation of data confirmed…
(Bhatt et al., 2011).
Include year again the
first time the authors are
mentioned in the next
paragraph.
APA manual, pp. 175-176
When Citing a Source With Several
Authors
No comma when there is only one
surname with et al.
Example:
Bhatt, Jenson, Casey, and Vandenputty (2011) found….
Bhatt et al. (2011) concluded that…. However, Bhatt et al.
experienced some problems with…. The findings were
statistically significant (Bhatt et al., 2011).
Bhatt et al. (2011) checked for…. Bhatt et al. challenged
previous findings on…. Triangulation of data confirmed…
(Bhatt et al., 2011).
APA manual, pp. 175-176
When Citing Source With Several
Authors
• Cite all the authors the first time in text.
• Use et al. thereafter.
• Include year in all parenthetical text citations
as well as in the first text citation in the
paragraph.
• For subsequent citations in text within the
same paragraph, leave off the year.
APA manual, pp. 175-176
Citations inThree
text:
to Five Authors
Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated…
Quinlan et al. (2008) observed…
(et al. is used after first use when there are
three or more authors)
Parenthetical citations in text:
(Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008)
(Quinlan et al., 2008)
One work by six or more authors:
Wienhorst et al. (2009)
(Wienhorst et al., 2009)
Always use et al. for six or
more authors for in-text
citations.
See APA manual, p. 177
Citations inThree
text:
to Five Authors
Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated…
Quinlan et al. (2008) observed…
(et al. is used after first use when there are
three or more authors)
Parenthetical citations in text:
No comma when
there isByron,
only one & Montgomery, 2008)
(Quinlan,
Jones,
surname with et al.
(Quinlan
et al., 2008)
One work by six or more authors:
Wienhorst et al. (2009)
(Wienhorst et al., 2009)
See APA manual, p. 177
Citing Two Group Studies When First Author
Has Same Last Name
Two sources with same first name and same year of publication:
• Rice, Batson-George, and Ramdial (2010)
• Rice, Hutchens, and Seiler (2010)
• Rice, Batson-George, et al. (2010)
• Rice, Hutchens, et al. (2010)
• Rice et al. (2008)
APA manual, p. 175
Citing Two Group Studies When First Author
Has Same Last Name
Two sources with same first name and same year of publication:
• Rice, Batson-George, and Ramdial (2010)
• Rice, Hutchens, and Seiler (2010)
Use as many surnames as needed to distinguish the studies:
• Rice, Batson-George, et al. (2010)
• Rice, Hutchens, et al. (2010)
Additional surnames are not needed for other years:
• Rice et al. (2008)
APA manual, p. 175
Notice the commas used when
there is more than one surname
with et al.
Authors With Last Surname
When two authors have same surname, cite
the initials in the text even if the years of
publication are different.
R. Jones (2008) and M. Jones (2011) found
that….
… as the tweets demonstrated (Obama, B.,
2011; Obama, M., 2012).
APA manual, Sec. 6.1.4, p. 176
Ampersands and Commas in Citations
• Stating vs. citing
Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on
information literacy in higher education.
but
Information literacy needs to be integrated into the
curriculum (Quinlan & Bardeen, 2007).
• Three or more authors cited, use commas
Researchers (Creswell, Borg, & Allsop, 2004) have found
that this is true.
Creswell, Borg, and Allsop (2004) found that this is
true.
Ampersands and Commas in Citations
• Stating vs. citing
Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on
information literacy in higher education.
but
Information literacy needs to be integrated into the
curriculum (Quinlan & Bardeen, 2007).
• Three or more authors cited, use commas
Researchers (Creswell, Borg, & Allsop, 2004) have found
that this is true.
Creswell, Borg, and Allsop (2004) found that this is
true.
Differences in
Text vs. Reference List
Tunon and Ramirez (2012) found that...
… in the study (Tunon & Ramirez, 2012).
Tunon, J., & Ramirez, L. (2012). ABD or EdD?
Journal of Academic Librarianship, 10(2), 2343.
See APA manual, pp. 177, .
Six or More Authors in
Text vs. Reference List
Text citation for six or more authors:
Wienhorst et al. (2010) found that ….
List the first six
authors and last
author. Separate
with ellipses.
Reference citation with more than seven
authors:
Wienhorst, S., Jones, R. E., Smith, T., Stonebraker,
W., Schaefer, A., Johnson, M., . . . Allsop, S.
(2010). What...
See APA manual, pp. 177, 184, 198.
Groups as Authors
Use parentheses.
Must use acronym
thereafter.
Citations in text:
The American Psychological Association (APA)
observed…
American Psychological Association [APA] (2009)
stated…
Parenthetical citations in text:
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2009)
NOTE: Use (APA, 2009) thereafter.
See APA manual, p. 176
No Back-t0-Back Parentheses
Citations in text:
The American Psychological Association (APA)
observed…
Use brackets. No backto-back parentheses.
American Psychological Association [APA] (2009)
stated…
Parenthetical citations in text:
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2009)
NOTE: Use (APA, 2009) thereafter.
See APA manual, p. 176
No Back-t0-Back Parentheses
Citations in text:
The American Psychological Association (APA)
observed…
American Psychological Association [APA] (2009)
stated…
Parenthetical citations in text:
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2009)
NOTE: Use (APA, 2009) thereafter.
See APA manual, p. 176
Secondary Sources
Text citation:
Freud’s theory of the id, ego, and superego
(as cited in Dickerson, 2012) …
List the primary source in the reference list entry:
Dickerson, L. (2012). Freudian concepts of id,
ego and superego applied to chemical and
other addictions. New York, NY: Universe.
Personal Communications: Only Cite in
the Text
(L. Acosta, personal communication, June 15, 2012)
• Interviews gathered in an ethnography where the
names of participants are not revealed
• Handouts not posted on website or available
elsewhere
• Lectures that cannot be retrieved by other
researchers (Blackboard, WebCT, Desire2Learn,
Moodle, etc.)
• Restricted emails and not visible to the entire group
• Personal conversations
• Personal letters that are not accessible in an archive
Entire Websites Cited
The APA Style blog (http://blog.apa.org) is a useful
source for updated information on APA formatting.
President Obama has used Twitter (http://www.twitter
.com/barackobama) and Facebook (http://www
.facebook.com/barackobama) effectively in both the
2008 and 2012 campaigns.
Entire websites are not included in the reference list.
In midsentence
Quotes must be introduced.
The principal stated, “Instructors may or may not want to
Quotes Introduced by a Clause
require an abstract for class assignments” (Tunon, 2006,
p. 34), but she concluded that they always summarized
the essential content of the paper.
At end of a sentence
Tunon (2006) found that “instructors may or may not want
|
to require an abstract for class assignments” (p. 34).
In midsentence
Quotes must be introduced.
The principal stated, “Instructors may or may not want to
Quotes Introduced by a Clause
require an abstract for class assignments” (Tunon, 2006,
p. 34), but she concluded that they always summarized
the essential content of the paper.
At end of a sentence
Tunon (2006) found that “instructors may or may not want
|
to require an abstract for class assignments” (p. 34).
APA manual, p. 92
Direct quote for less than 40 words:
Text vs Block Quotes
The abstract is a one-paragraph summary or overview of the paper and “should summarize
the essential content of the paper” (Tunon, 2009, p. 34).
Block quote (more than 40 words):
Note where the periods go!
Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to
use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Strunk (1922) stated:
Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book,
journal, brochure, or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a short title
in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical
titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text
citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized
in the reference list. (p. 342)
Callahan (2001), however, says ….
Text Cites of Electronic Resources
In
Gallego,Duran,
Duran,and
and
Reyes
(2005)
In another
another case,
case, Scanlon,
Scanlon, Gallego,
Reyes
(2005)
found
found
that
the results
be “based
on assumptions
that
that the
results
shouldshould
be “based
on assumptions
that individuals
individuals
capable of self-directed
and self-initiated
learning”
are capableare
of self-directed
and self-initiated
learning” (Methods
(Methods
section,
section, para.
7). para. 7).
“The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were
challenged
by Bambang
Totonumu”
(Pival,
“The qualitative
researchand
methods
discussed
byFalcao,
Durango&were
Use name
of section. para. 5).
Quinlan,
2009,
“Problems
with
Qualitative
Research,”
challenged by Bambang and Totonumu” (Pival, Falcao, & Quinlan,
2009, “Problems with Qualitative Research,” para. 5).
“It is reassuring to believe that circumstances are against you”
(Silva, 2007, Chapter 2, “Specious Barrier” section, para. 2).
Use shortened section title in quotation marks.
See APA (6th ed.), p. 172, APA Style Guide (2012), p. 17.
When to Include Page Numbers in the
Text and Reference List
• In the text, the page number is required for direct
quotes and optional for paraphrased content. For
example:
“ . . . validated findings” (Turner, 2012, p. 233).
Turner, J. T. (2012). The circle of learning. Reading
Teacher, 23(5), 229-234.
• In the reference list:
– Newspapers, newsletters, book chapters,
conference proceedings. For example:
Turner, J. (2009). Piaget’s reading theories (pp.
210-233). New York, NY: Scarecrow Press.
When to Include Page Numbers in the
Text and Reference List
• In the text, the page number is required for direct
quotes and optional for paraphrased content. For
example:
“ . . . validated findings” (Turner, 2012, p. 233).
Turner, J. T. (2012). The circle of learning. Reading
Teacher, 23(5), 229-234.
• Use pp. in the reference list for the following:
Newspapers, newsletters, book chapters,
conference proceedings. For example:
Turner, J. (2009). Piaget’s reading theories (pp.
210-233). New York, NY: Scarecrow Press.
Slang vs
Key or Linguistic Term
Use quotation marks for
slang, coined, or ironic
terms. p. 91
• The students felt “slammed” by the email.
• The term school media specialist is defined
in this study to include only librarians with
MLS degrees and state certification.
• The letter b was usedItalicize
to … linguistic
examples and technical
or key terms. p. 91
Abbreviations
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS)
Fischler School of Education (FSE)
Nova Southeastern University (NSU)
Once defined, you must use the abbreviation throughout
the rest of your paper. NOTE: If possible, do not start a sentence with an
abbreviation or acronym.
Parenthetical
Use Latin
(e.g., )
(i.e., )
(, etc. )
Nonparenthetical (in the text)
Use English
for example,
that is,
, and so forth
APA manual, pp. 107-108, 176-177
Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols
• Italicize letters used as statistical symbols:
f
– frequency
Mdn – median
n
– number in a subsample
N
– number in a sample
p
– probability
P
– percentage, percentile
t
– computed value for t test
• Symbols for vectors and matrices are bolded.
V, ∑
APA manual, pp. 118-121
Capitalizing Proper Names of School/
University Departments and Courses
• Department of Education, Valparaiso University
• Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000
• Educational Assessment 101
Proper names
APA manual, pp. 96-97
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