Technological Advancements of EMUs and Introduction

Report
Technological Advancements of EMUs
and
Introduction of High Speed Trains
on
Indian Railways
Presented by
Nasim Uddin, Executive Director/PS&EMU, RDSO
Ravindra Verma, Jt. Director/PS&EMU, RDSO
CONTENTS
BACKGROUND
ADOPTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IN A PHASED MANNER
KEY ISSUES OF MUMBAI SUBURBAN SYSTEM
SUBURBAN TRAFFIC GROWTH IN MUMBAI
ACTION PLAN TO ADDRESS THE ISSUES
IMPROVED FEATURES OF NEW EMUs
OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES & TECHNOLOGICAL
UPGRADATION
ADOPTION OF HIGH SPEED TRAIN TECHNOLOGY ON IR
CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
First electric suburban train was inaugurated by Sir Leslie Wilson from
Victoria Terminus (now CSTM) to Kurla on Harbour line in Mumbai on
3rd February 1925 with 1500V DC traction system.
PERIODIC INDUCTION OF EMU STOCK
ADOPTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IN A PHASED MANNER
Early DC EMU Stock (WCU)
AC/DC EMU (GTO Based)
DC EMU
AC/DC EMU (IGBT Based)
CR
WR
Total
Station
79
28
107
RKM
263
56
319
THE SALIENT STATISTICS OF SUBURBAN SECTIONS
OF WR & CR
Percentage growth from 1951-52 to 2011-12
Av. Growth in Population (590%)
Population Growth in Mumbai
(in millions)
OVER CROWDING IN SUBURBAN TRAINS
SUBURBAN TRAFFIC GROWTH IN MUMBAI
YEAR WISE GROWTH IN PASSENGERS CARRIED
(Millions)
HB
2000
TOTAL (WR+
CR+HB)
1500
1000
2500
1000
0
0
2900
2806
2705
2701
2657
1500
500
CR
Total
2000
500
YEARS
2533
3000
2411
CR
WR
2314
3500
2245
WR
PASSENGERS CARRIED
2736
2718
2574
2421
2206
2105
2097
2097
2500
2078
SERVICES PER DAY
3000
2673
YEAR WISE GROWTH IN SERVICES
YEARS
KEY ISSUES OF MUMBAI SUBURBAN SYSTEM
Design of the DC EMU is obsolete.
Super Dense Crush Loading: 5,000 passengers (900
sitting & >4,000 people standing) are travelling in peak
hours in a nine car train against the design capacity of
1800 (900 sitting & 900 standing).
Jerks particularly while starting and braking.
Inadequate illumination level (<120 lux).
Excessive maintenance due to use of DC series motor and
cumbersome design of bogies & traction equipments.
Lack of ventilation: CO2 level inside coaches as high as
2500 ppm against the maximum ambient level of 600 -700
ppm available in the open air.
HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND INABILITY
OF SYSTEM TO CATER ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC
Due to large requirement of current, traction
substations have been set up at a very short interval
(average 2.5km).
For increasing the suburban services and number of
coaches per train, additional substations need to be
set up, which is not considered to be economical.
Adoption of 25kV traction system has become
inevitable.
ACTION PLAN TO ADDRESS THE ISSUES
Formation of MRVC to implement Railway projects with
the assistance of World Bank.
MoU between MRVC and RDSO for technical
consultancy
Increasing the length of trains from 9 to 12 & 15 cars.
Switch over from old DC traction to GTO and
subsequently to IGBT based three phase propulsion
technology along with TCMS.
Introduction of rakes with new technology having IGBT
based three phase propulsion system with the
advantages of lower SEC (<30), low maintenance, higher
acceleration/ deceleration and the improved reliability.
ADVANTAGES OF IGBT BASED CONVERTER COMPARED
TO GTO TECHNOLOGY
Simplified heat sink design due to elimination of
snubber circuit.
Simplified gate drive unit.
Lower switching losses in IGBT enabling higher pulse
frequencies leading to lower harmonic distortion.
Signaling circuits operating at frequencies 1.7 kHz - 2.6
kHz and 5.0 kHz onwards are not affected by switching
frequencies of IGBT.
Higher power efficiency.
GENERAL DESIGN DATA
Rake Formation
: 9/12/15/18
Axle Load Motor/Trailer Coach
: 20.32 tons
Design Speed
: 110kmph
Acceleration
: 0.54 m/sec2
Deceleration
: 0.76 m/sec2
(max. to 50kmph)
: 0.84 m/sec2
(50kmph to standstill)
Type of Coach
Tare
Weight
Pay
Weight
Total
Weight
Motor Coach
51.20
26.76
77.96
Driving Trailer Coach
31.55
28.00
59.55
Trailer Coach
30.80
34.00
64.80
OVERVIEW OF TCMS ARCHITECTURE
ADVANTAGES OF TRAIN CONTROL & MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(TCMS)
IP and MVB network for train communication
Microprocessor based fault diagnostics and event recorder
Control of major functions from Human Machine Interface (HMI)
Reduction in cabling due to use of digital and analog I/O devices.
Down loading of events and fault data at remote control centre
Automatic train configuration
Redundant drive & brake control unit
Recording of energy regeneration and consumption data
Diagnostic software tools for parametric changes & recording of
environmental data for a specific event
Emergency Brake Loop & Emergency Off Loop for safe
operation of train
Ventilation, tractive & braking effort control based on weight
sensor feedback.
TECHNICAL OVERVIEW
BLOCK DIAGRAM
DTC
MC
TC
AC 25kV 50Hz
DC 1.5kV
DTC: Driving Trailer Coach
MC: Motor Coach
TC:
Trailer Coach
TU:
Transformer Unit
TCU: Traction Converter Unit
ACU: Auxiliary Converter Unit
BR:
BR
Brake Resistor
MAC: Main Air Compressor
TU
AAC: Auxiliary Air Compressor
F:
Battery
ACU
TCU
1
Fans
1
3
1
3
3
3AC 425V
50 Hz
M
3
M
3
M
3
M
3
M
MAC
3
AC 141V; 50 Hz
8 Lights
8 Lights
F
26 Lights
DC 110V
8 Lights
F
Emergency
Emergency
26 Fans
26 Lights
26 Fans
F
M
Emergency
AAC
26 Lights
26 Fans
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF VARIOUS PROPULSION EQUIPMENT
Equipment/Parameter
Make & Type
Continuous Power Rating
Primary/Secondary traction winding
voltage
Continuous Input Power Rating of
Line side converter
Nominal DC link voltage
Continuous Output Power rating of
Motor side converter
Input DC Voltage
Max. output power
Make & Type
Continuous Power
Alstom
BHEL
Traction Transformer
Nieke
BHEL
1200 KVA
22500/810 V
1578 kVA
22500/2x938 V
Traction Converter
1200 kW
2X813 kW
1500 V
1800 V
1300 KVA
2x687 kVA
Auxiliary Converter
1400 V
625 V
70 kVA
100 kVA
(distributed)
(distributed)
Traction Motor
GEC Alstom
IM 3601
4ERA1858A
AZ BHEL
240 KW
285 kW
Siemens
Bombardier
ABB, LOT
1250, Oil
Immersed
Transformer
1250 KVA
22500/2x855 V
ABB, LOT 1216,
Oil Immersed
Transformer
1240 KW
1178 kW
1800 V
(AC Mode)
1500V
(DC Mode)
1070 KW
1650 V DC
1500 V
115 KVA
(distributed)
1650 V
164.3 KVA
(distributed)
Siemens,
1TB20220TA03
240 kW
Bombardier,
Mitrac TM 1800 S
1216 KVA
22500/2x833 V
1172 kVA
247 kW
MAJOR PROPULSION EQUIPMENTS
Traction transformer
Auxiliary Converter & battery charger
Traction Converter
Traction Motor
IMPROVED FEATURES OF NEW EMUs
Forced Ventilation Unit
GRAB HANDLES
GPS BASED PASSENGER INFORMATION SYSTEM (PIS)
INTER VEHICULAR COUPLER
LARGER WINDOWS
INTERIORS: SEATS, PARTITIONS & ILLUMINATION
IMPROVED COLOUR SCHEME
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION
ERGONOMICALLY DESIGNED DRIVING CAB
HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI)
i
Train No.
V›0
UNIT 1
1320 V
V=0
Overview Energy of Train
M
UNIT 2 UNIT 3
M
M
i
15/09/07
09:42:54
Train No.
UNIT 4
1320 V
M
1500 v
V›0
V=0
Overview Energy of Train
15/09/07
UNIT 1
UNIT 2
UNIT 3
UNIT 4
M
M
M
M
1500 v
100 %
100 %
50 %
50 %
0 %
800 v
67%
67%
67%
0 %
800 v
67%
FIRE DETECTION
Energy
09:42:54
User
I D
Top
Level
67%
67%
67%
67%
FIRE DETECTION
Energy
User
I D
Top
Level
NOISE CONTROL
In DC EMU, lot of noise (>85 dB) is generated from DC traction motor
while
Accelerating, from bogie during braking and also from
compressor.
With the introduction of AC motor driven compressors and IGBT
based step-less control system with regenerative braking, the noise
level inside the coach has been reduced to 65-70 db.
INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF COACHES PER TRAIN
When the traction system is changed from DC to AC, the operating
current per train gets reduced from 4,000 ampere to approximately
200 ampere for 12 car train. Additional carrying capacity can be
generated by
increasing the number of coaches per train .
Number of traction substations in the Western and Central Railways
will be reduced from the existing 66 to 22 after complete conversion.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Saving to the tune of Rs 1 billion per year due to
regeneration feature with the introduction of new three
phase EMUs in Mumbai area.
The World Bank has identified this project as CDM
project to obtain carbon credit. To take advantage of
the CDM framework, Indian Railways has processed, in
association with the World Bank, a Project Design
Document (PDD) for registration with UNFCCC. The
project has received Host Country Approval and is
expected to result in annual reduction of
approximately one million tonne of CO2 Emissions.
COST MANAGEMENT
The cost of MRVC-I rake (nine-car) is approximately Rs 200
million.
The cost of a fully imported nine-car rake having similar features
would be around Rs 600 million.
The cost reduction has been achieved by adopting the following
strategies:
Out of the total quantity ordered, only 30 per cent of the
equipments were manufactured abroad and the rest were
manufactured in the facilities that were set up by the firms in
India.
Improved features of passenger amenity items were
developed indigenously manufacturing the coach body and
shell at ICF at with the features matching the international
standards.
OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES & TECHNOLOGICAL
UPGRADATION
Creation of adequate capacity, segregation of commuter
lines from long-distance lines and expansion of services
to ensure passenger comfort.
Partnership with state authorities for development of
suburban rail infrastructure.
Adopting the latest international best practices in various
facets of railway system, construction, maintenance and
operation.
Introduction of EMUs, MEMUs & Air-conditioned EMU
rakes fitted with 3 phase propulsion equipments.
Introduction of Train Sets.
ADOPTION OF HIGH SPEED
TRAIN TECHNOLOGY
Raising the speed of passenger
trains to 160 km/h on the existing
conventional tracks.
Upgradation
of
the
existing
conventional lines up to speed of
200 km/h, with a forward vision of
speed above 200 km/h on new
tracks
with
state-of-the-art
technology
MEASURES FOR HIGH SPEED TRAINS
With separation of the dedicated freight corridors, trainsets can run at the maximum speed limit of the rolling
stock on the existing tracks.
Upgrade the existing passenger tracks with heavier rails
and build the new elevated tracks fit for 200–350 km/h.
Improve coaches, which can support 160 km/h, with SS
bodies and crash worthy designs, incorporating
passenger & crew protection and fire-retardant materials.
Equip coaches with electro-pneumatic brake systems to
enhance safe operations at high speeds.
Implementation of regional high-speed rail projects to provide
services at 200–350 km/h.
Planning for corridors connecting commercial, tourist and
pilgrimage hubs.
Six corridors have been identified and pre-feasibility study on
setting up of high-speed rail corridors has been completed:
Delhi-Chandigarh-Amritsar
Pune-Mumbai-Ahmedabad
Hyderabad-Dornakal-Vijayawada-Chennai
Howrah-Haldia
Chennai Bangalore-Coimbatore-Trivandrum
Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna.
These high speed rail lines will be built as elevated corridors in
keeping with the pattern of habitation and the constraint of land.
High Speed Rail Corporation of India (HSRC) has been
incorporated.
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Train set costs around Rs 80 million per car. This is likely to
reduce to Rs 60 million, with indigenous manufacture as
almost all leading manufacturers have set up manufacturing
units in India.
Additional cost incurred on train sets vis-à-vis loco hauled
21 coach Rajdhani train is Rs 1 billion. Due to energy
efficiency and increase in passenger carrying capacity, the
additional investment gets recovered in three years as rate of
return is as high as 35%.
Train sets are most economical for a train-run of more than
800 kilometres.
Increase in line capacity and reduction in track maintenance
due to lower axle load.
GLOBAL HIGH SPEED SCENARIO
The first high speed rail system started with the opening of
Tōkaidō Shinkansen line in Japan in 1964, with operating
speeds of 210 km/h.
On 25 December 2012, world's longest high speed line
opened in China; Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong
High-Speed Railway for 2,298 kilometres, operating at a
maximum speed of 350 kmph.
Most of the Railways in the advance countries have switched
over from the locomotive hauled intercity train services to
Train Sets, progressively due to the advantages of distributed
power of EMU Train Sets. Such trains are energy efficient
because of regenerative braking, provide better riding
comfort, noise and pollution free journeys.
PLAN FOR INTRODUCTION OF TRAIN SETS ON IR
Introduce EMU train sets for intercity journeys running at 20% higher
average speed i.e. up to 160kmph without any additional expenditure on
the existing track and signalling infrastructure.
Advantages of EMU train sets over conventional loco hauled trains
operating at similar speeds:
Higher reliability
Lower and distributed axle load, thus reducing the track/bridge
maintenance and increasing the assets life.
Higher acceleration/deceleration performance due to distributed
traction/power units
Higher floor area utilisation due to elimination of loco and power
cars
Elimination of reversal at terminal stations leading to better
operational efficiency
Noiseless and environment friendly due to absence of power cars
Reduced maintenance and long life of wheels and brake
equipments on account of regenerative braking in multiple units.
Reduced coupler forces
CONCLUSION
Adoption of 3-phase propulsion technology in EMUs has
resulted in the reduced maintenance, higher reliability, energy
saving and shorter run time.
Progressive switch over from locomotive hauled trains to the
distributed power EMU Train Sets.
Introduction of EMU Train sets will provide faster, safer,
cleaner, comfortable and reliable passenger friendly inter city
services.
Supply of new generation train sets at the reduced cost from
manufacturing facilities of global suppliers in India.
Feasibility for adoption of next generation technology viz. SiC
semiconductor devices and permanent magnet traction
motors.
THANK YOU

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