The Renaissance of local economic regeneration in the UK: themes

Report
Regional and local economics
Lecture 9b The Renaissance of local economic
regeneration in the UK – Main themes and activities
Aims
 Examine local economic regeneration & look at generic
initiatives and programmes
 Examine competitive bidding and the role of physical
regeneration
 Examine the issues of employment education and training and
how these impact on regeneration
Outcomes
 Have a good idea of the scope of local economic development
 Be conversant with the principles of competitive bidding
 Be aware of how local regeneration impacts on real economic
issues
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 1
Regional and local economics
Economic Analysis
Social Analysis
Environmental Analysis
Structure, employment,
income, output, linkages
Stress, deprivation, skills,
facilities, minorities
Physical quality, resources,
waste, congestion, design
Inputs
External drivers of
change
Macro trends, European
policy, competitor cities
Application to the urban area
City wide analysis, neighbourhood
characteristics, existing plans,
specific goals, future requirements
Internal drivers of change
Existing strategies,
availability of resources,
preference of residents,
leaders & champions
Outputs
Physical improvements
Neighbourhood strategies
Community action, inner
area renewal, social facilities
Training & Education
Skills enhancement, community
training, enhanced R&D
City centre, estates, housing,
design & quality heritage
Economic Development
Environmental action
Support new & existing firms, improved
infrastructure, innovation, diversification
Waste management, energy efficiency,
urban greening, company based action
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 2
Regional and local economics
Urban Regeneration:
A Handbook (2001)
Retention of spending
demand-side
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Manufacturing
Services
Exports
Improving efficiency
supply-side
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Infrastructure
Innovation
Entrepreneurship
Education and training
Why urban areas have
declined
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Structuralist
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Counter-urbanisation
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Marxist
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Sectoral or planning
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External ownership
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Product cycle
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 3
Regional and local economics
Phases of Urban Policy
Mid 60s to 1977
 Culture of poverty thesis
1977- early 80s
 Land and Premises
Early 80s – 1988
 Private sector “Flagships”
Post 1988
 Variable problems, local ownership
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 4
Regional and local economics
Generic Initiatives/Programmes
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Grant support
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Relaxation of Regulation
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Enterprise zones
Urban Development Agencies
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Land grant – Urban development grants – Urban
regeneration grants
UDC – English partnerships
Integrated approaches
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CATs, Task Forces
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 5
Regional and local economics
Competitive Bidding and Funding
Picking winners
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City Challenge
Single Regeneration Budget
Future
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Broad range of partners
Needs of locals
Effect sectoral changes
Demonstrate innovation
Tangible benefits
Replicate
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 6
Regional and local economics
Physical regeneration
Role of Physical Regeneration
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Removing constraints
Leading the change
Building on opportunities
Supply-side investments
Integrated renewal
Avoiding conflict
Sustainable development
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Economic
Technical
Political
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 7
Regional and local economics
Social and Community Issues
Characteristics of communities
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Personal attributes
Beliefs
Economic position
Skills
Relationship to local services
Place
Togetherness
Features
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Needs and provision,
Special needs,
Representation,
Empowerment
To make a partnership work
 Co-ordination
 Effective management structures
 Link into different programmes
Vision that is shared
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 8
Regional and local economics
Capacity Building
Ingredients
Operation
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Skills
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Programme Bending
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Acquiring knowledge
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Community Linking
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The availability of resources
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Mainstream
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Ability to influence
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Localist
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 9
Regional and local economics
Employment, Education and Training
Causes of urban employment problems
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Congestion
High land values
Under investment
High security costs
Few skilled people
Unemployment harder to crack
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Unemployable
Impersonal nature
Disadvantaged groups concentrated
Language problems
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 10
Regional and local economics
Labour Market Policy
Demand-side
Supply-side
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Attracting inward investment
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Information
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Creating micro business
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Basic education
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Temporary jobs public
funding
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Develop vocational skills
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Enhance motivation
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Expand public sector
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Increase incentives
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Reduce Labour costs
Avoiding DDS
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export;
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support long-term growth;
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meet skill demand
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 11
Regional and local economics
Education, training & future
Business contribution
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Management
Examples and equipment
Work experience
Mentoring
Key actors
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Local authorities
LSC
ES
Business Link
Voluntary sector
Future
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Occupational change
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Flexible
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Social back-up
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Small high-tech
Strengths
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Education
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Health
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Culture, sport and heritage
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 12
Regional and local economics
Conclusions
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Urban areas have faced economic decline for the last
50 years, structuralist, counter-urbanisation etc.
Current phase of policy began in 1988
Range of strategies employed
Significant role for physical regeneration
Social and community issues increasingly important
focus on capacity building.
Severe under and unemployment - actions needed
on the demand and supply sides of the labour market
Business have key contribution in education and
training in partnership with others
More challenges to come
Regional and Local Economics (RALE)
Lecture slides – Lecture 9b
Slide 13

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