Dr Andreas Rahmatian

BLACA – 12 September 2013
Originality Revisited: The
CJEU and UK Copyright
Dr Andreas Rahmatian
University of Glasgow, School of Law
Skill and Labour > < Creativity?
• Infopaq International v. Danske Dagblades Forening [2009]
ECDR 16 (Case C-5/08)
• Bezpečnostní softwarová asociace v. Svaz softwarové ochrany
v Ministerstvo kultury [2011] FSR 18 (Case C-393/09)
• Painer v. Standard Verlags GmbH, Axel Springer AG,
Süddeutsche Zeitung GmbH, Spiegel-Verlag Rudolf Augstein
GmbH & Co. KG, Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg Expedition der
Kölnischen Zeitung GmbH & Co KG [2012] ECDR 6 (C-145/10)
• Football Dataco Ltd and others v. Yahoo! UK Ltd and others
[2012] 2 CMLR 24 (Case C-604/10).
ECJ/CJEU – Interpretation of
• ‘Own intellectual creation’
• ‘… choice, sequence and combination of … words
that the author may express his creativity in an
original manner and achieve a result that is an
intellectual creation (Infopaq, para. 45)
• The author has free and creative choices in several
ways and at several points in its production, and can
thereby ‘stamp the work created with its personal
touch’ (Painer, paras. 90, 92)
Author’s Rights Originality
• Germany, s. 2(2) UrhG: ‘personal intellectual
• France: ‘marque de la personnalité de l’auteur’,
l’empreinte de la personnalité de l’auteur’
• = is not the EU notion of ‘own intellectual
creation’ – what is the EU notion of originality?
• AND (e.g. in France):
• ‘des œuvres du langage de caractère technique et des
compilations utilitaires dans lesquels la marque de la
personnalité de l’auteur n’est pas évidente.’ (Lucas 2006, p. 75)
• (also: ‘kleine Münze’, neighbouring rights etc.)
‘New’ Copyright-Originality?
• Skill, labour, effort and judgement (GB)
• Personal intellectual creation (D) ?? =
• Arguably neither: “Originality” is a
definition resting on further definitions
Possible definition for EU-influenced new UK
• “A creation is protected by copyright if it constitutes an
original work that is recorded in some permanent form.
Originality means that a sufficient amount of skill, labour
and/or judgement has gone into the work in such a way
that through the choices, selection and arrangement in
the making of the work the author gives the work a
modicum of individuality and so renders it his/her own
intellectual creation.”
(A. Rahmatian, “Originality in UK Copyright Law: The Old ‘Skill and
Labour’ Doctrine Under Pressure”, 44 IIC (2013) pp. 4-34, at p. 30)
Contact Details
Dr. Andreas Rahmatian
School of Law
University of Glasgow, UK
[email protected]

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