Chapter 7 Power Point Slides

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Chapter 7
Shock
Introduction to Shock
• Perfusion
• Adequate blood and oxygen are provided to
all cells in the body.
• Hypoperfusion
• The cardiovascular system collapses and
fails.
• Blood circulation decreases and eventually
ceases.
Damage Caused by Shock
• Brain
• 4 to 6 minutes
• Abdominal organs
• 45 to 90 minutes
• Skin and muscle cells
• 3 to 6 hours
Perfusion Triangle
• Shock occurs
when one or more
of the sides is not
working properly.
Causes of Shock (1 of 4)
• Cardiovascular
• Pump failure
• Cardiogenic shock
• Content failure
• Hypovolemic shock
or hemorrhagic
shock
Causes of Shock (2 of 4)
• Cardiovascular
(cont’d)
• Poor vessel
function
• Neurogenic shock
• Combined vessel
and content failure
• Septic shock
Causes of Shock (3 of 4)
•Noncardiovascular
• Respiratory
insufficiency
• Chest injury
• Airway obstruction
• Anaphylactic
shock
• Medications
• Food
• Insect stings
Causes of Shock (4 of 4)
•Noncardiovascular (cont’d)
• Psychogenic shock
• Fainting, or syncope
• Causes include fear, bad news, and
unpleasant sights.
The Progression of Shock (1 of 2)
•Compensated shock
• The body can still compensate for blood loss.
•Decompensated shock
• Late stage of shock
• Falling blood pressure
•Irreversible shock
• Final stage
• Terminal
Progression of Shock (2 of 2)
General Care for Shock (1 of 6)
• Monitor breathing.
• Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR), if necessary.
• Control external bleeding.
General Care for Shock (2 of 6)
Position the victim:
• If spinal injury is not
suspected, elevate
the head.
General Care for Shock (3 of 6)
Position the victim
(cont’d):
•An unresponsive or
stroke victim should be
placed in the recovery
position.
General Care for Shock (4 of 6)
Position the victim
(cont’d):
•Use a half-sitting
position for victims with
breathing difficulties,
chest injuries, or heart
attack.
General Care for Shock (5 of 6)
Position the victim
(cont’d):
•If spinal injury or leg
fracture is suspected,
keep the victim flat.
General Care for Shock (6 of 6)
• Loosen tight clothing at the neck, chest,
and waist.
• Splint bone or joint injuries.
• Keep the victim warm.
• Handle the victim gently.
• Seek immediate medical care.
General Care for Anaphylaxis
• Call 9-1-1 immediately.
• Monitor breathing.
• Administer epinephrine.
Administering Epinephrine
Auto-Injector (1 of 3)
• Check the
expiration date.
• Remove the safety
cap.
Administering Epinephrine
Auto-Injector (2 of 3)
• Support the victim’s
thigh.
• Place the injector
between the hip and
knee on the victim’s
thigh.
• Push the injector
firmly.
• Hold for 10 seconds.
Administering Epinephrine
Auto-Injector (3 of 3)
• Reinsert, needle
first.
• Dispose of
properly.
Care for Psychogenic Shock
(Fainting) (1 of 3)
If you feel faint:
• Lie down or sit down.
• Do not place your head between your knees.
Care for Psychogenic Shock
(Fainting) (2 of 3)
If someone else faints:
•
•
•
•
Check for breathing.
Begin CPR and call 9-1-1 if necessary.
Keep the victim flat.
Raise legs 6 to 12 inches unless an injury is
suspected.
• Check for possible head and spine injuries.
Care for Psychogenic Shock
(Fainting) (3 of 3)
If someone else faints (cont’d):
• If weakness, dizziness, or pain is present during
walking, suspect a head injury.
• Call 9-1-1 and treat for possible spine injury.
• Check and treat injuries related to falling.
• Allow fresh air to reach the victim.

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