Understanding the Organisation of Food Adulteration

Report
An Organised Crime: The Contribution
of Criminology in Understanding the
Organisation of Food Adulteration
Jon Spencer
Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice,
University of Manchester, UK
27th Baltic Criminology Seminar: University of Vilnius,
Lithuania
Introduction
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scandals in the food chain
The Supply Chain
From Beast to Table
A Case Study –
Criminal Networks and Criminal Opportunities
Research Directions
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
3
FOOD ADULTERATION SCANDALS NEW
NEW AND OLD
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
4
The Horse Meat Scandal
• In 2013 across Europe a
number of processed
‘beef’ products were
found to contain
horsemeat.
• The source of the
‘contamination’ was in
the UK and Ireland.
• Allegations that it was
organised by Romanian
Organised Crime groups
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
5
Adulterated Tea
• In the C19th Tea and coffee
drinking had become popular
in the UK but both were
expensive –
• Exhausted tea leaves could be
bought for a few pence per
pound from London hotels and
coffee shops.
• The leaves were boiled with
copperas (ferrous sulphate)
and sheep’s dung, then
coloured with prussian blue
(ferric ferrocyanide), verdigris
(basic copper acetate),
logwood, tannin or carbon
black, before being resold.
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
6
Austrian Wine Scandal
• Addition of diethylene glycol to
Austrian sweet wines in 1985
(Consumption Fraud)
• The addition of diethylene glycol
was to mask the addition of sugar
used to sweeten the wines.
• There were 70 wine producers
implicated in the fraud
• “All wine crime is organized, that
is, it is committed by several
perpetrators acting in knowing
and willful collaboration. This
does not imply that any detailed
plan of action exists. A quiet
agreement is usually enough”
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
7
The Supply Chain
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
8
What We Know
7 Defending the Safety of the Global Food System from Intentional Contamination
127
• Supply chains can be
extensive
• Supply chains can be
global, ingredients
sourced from different
parts of the globe
• The origin of ingredients
can change in the
production process
• Problems of regulation,
documentation and
verification
Fig. 7.3 Simplified supply chain for the standard American cheeseburger
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
9
Supply chain complexity
Fig. 7.3 Simplified supply chain for the standard American cheeseburger
• Within any processed
foods there are a
considerable number of
supply chain
interactions
• the development of
networks of supply
chains that come
together to form one
point of provision.
Fig. 7.4 List of possible ingredients in each component of the cheeseburger
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
10
Getting to Grips with the Supply Chain
• The variety of origins
within the supply chain
make it problematic to
regulate. This problem
of regulation has
increased with the
processes of
globalisation.
128
F.F. Busta and S.P. Kennedy
Fig. 7.5 Possible global sources of some of the cheeseburger ingredients
them soon after purchase. In addition, some foods are prepared for and distributed to
“high risk populations” who may be more susceptible or sensitive to the contaminant
or in less strong to survive a physical insult. Finally, the slow recognition of an event
or outbreak will result in a greater number of affected consumers.
Coupled with these vulnerabilities is the extraordinary complexity of the food and
agriculture infrastructure resulting in the most complicated supply chain that exists in
Jon Spencer Centre foranyCriminology
and dispersed, privately held, highly integrated, flexible yet
sector. It is globally
Criminal Justice. University
of
Manchester.
redundant with limited excess capacity, dynamic with innumerable potential points11
of
UK disruption or contamination or both. It has been optimized for rapid delivery of low
Simple Supply Chains
• Few actors in the supply
chain
• Focus on specific
product with a specific
role
– Dairy Production of
Cheese and Milk
• Short distance between
raw food stuff and
finished product
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
12
Complex Supply Chains
• Food supply chains are
complex and can be
understood as
intersecting networks
• Network Analysis
provides useful analytic
concepts to understand
the relationship
between different
supply chains and
within supply chains
• Size of the supply chain
– Supply might enter many
different chains
• Density of supply
Chains
– Number of suppliers
– Type of product –
specialist /high volume
consumption
• Roles within supply
chains
– Brokers (Transnational)
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
13
Vulnerabilities of the Supply Chain
• As the supply chain
lengthens so the number of
actors in the chain
increases.
• As the number of processes
and actors increase so the
opportunities for
adulteration increases and
the risk of apprehension
decreases
• As the chain increases so
the likelihood of ‘nonacceptable processes’
increases
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
14
Supply Chain Economics
• Mass Market Economies –
move to large scale
supply within the food
retail sector.
• Retailer demands shape
the market and structures
forms of competition
• Price is a governing
feature and impacts on
supply chain structure
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
15
Structured Demand
• Shape of demand
within the market
structures the supply
chain and the length
and number of nodes
within the supply chain
• Demand, shape of
supply chain and
number of nodes
influence price and
subsequently profit.
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
16
Supply Chain Problems of
Globalisation
• “…agriculture infrastructure resulting in the most
complicated supply chain that exists in any sector. It is
globally dispersed, privately held, highly integrated,
flexible yet redundant with limited excess capacity,
dynamic with innumerable potential points of disruption
or contamination or both. It has been optimized for rapid
delivery of low cost food products from all sources. Since
it is such a complicated supply chain, perturbations at one
point have cascading effects and excess capacity is very
limited. “
Frank Busta and Shaun Kennedy Advances in Food Protection. Chemistry and Biology 2011, pp 119-135
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
17
Meat Processing
• Animal to Abattoir
• Abattoir regulated by EU
Supply Chain Stage
2: Carcass sent to
cutting plant
• Carcass cut into different
sections for processing.
• Mechanised processing of
the carcass to obtain all the
meat
• Meat processed for different
applications
• Mince for lasagne
• Chunks for pies
• Mechanised meat for
sausage
Supply Chain Stage 3:
Processing of raw
meat
Supply Chain: Stage 1
Animals to Slaughter
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
18
Food on the Table
• For some food it is
difficult to know the
route it has taken to
reach the table if the
supply chain is
extended and global
• Food as a product from
a short supply chain is
less vulnerable
• Critical points where
food can be adulterated
• Critical points include:
– unidentifiable product
– Points of cutting,
processing where
‘stretching’ ingredients
can be added
– Points prior to self
certification by
processors
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
19
A Case Study form The UK
Operation Aberdeen or the Activities
of ‘Maggot Pete’
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
20
Operation Aberdeen
Outline of Events
• Information received
from an informant
concerning Denby
Poultry Products –
registered as a Pet Food
processor
• Permitted to process
low risk waste
• Processing high risk
waste available via
‘middlemen’ (brokers).
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
21
Extent of the Problem
• Poultry being sent to 14
markets locations
nationwide and
approximately 300+
wholesalers.
• Cutting Plant in the region
of 110 customers
• Laundering Meat via food
outlet distribution –
processing approximately
20 tonnes per week
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
22
Understanding the Network of
‘Maggot Pete’
Geography
Cold Storage
Via Food broker
Licensed Cutting Plant
(new health mark applied)
Food Manufacturer
Pet Food Processor
Licensed Cutting Plant
Health Mark Applied
Poultry Slaughterhouse
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
23
Meat Laundering
Food Brokerage
Pet Food Processor
Legitimate Poultry
Supplier
Low Throughput Cutting
Plant
Legitimate Poultry
Supplier
Coldstore
Food Brokerage and
Food Manufacturer
Large Food Manufacturer
Major Retailers
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
24
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
25
Criminal Opportunities
• In the meat industry
there are many points of
vulnerability
• Maggot Pete was able to
exploit the vulnerable
points in the chain
– Lack of regulation in pet
food
– Lack of regulation at
cutting plants
– Lack of regulation in the
legitimate meat market
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
26
Safe Food?
• The opportunities for
fraud in the food
industry are many e.g
– Olive Oil
– Seafood
– Dairy Products
• Understanding Food
Safety and Food Fraud
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
27
Research Directions
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
28
Current Research Direction
• Mapping the possible
opportunities for criminal
action
• Exploring the dynamic
between the structure of
the market and the
structure of criminal
organisation
• Researching the structure
of criminal groups
• Investigating how food
fraud is organised
• Understanding the
control and regulatory
mechanisms
• Maintaining a distinction
between issues of food
fraud and food safety
• Need to ensure that all
actors have a voice in the
research
Jon Spencer Centre for Criminology and
Criminal Justice. University of Manchester.
UK
29

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