Bread: How it is made

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Nice graphic here
Bread
How it is made
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Learning Objectives
• To learn about the history of bread.
• To investigate the different types of grains used for making
bread.
• To understand the structure of grains.
• To learn about the ingredients in bread.
• To review the different bread making processes.
• To appreciate the different types of bread in the UK and
worldwide.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
When was bread first eaten?




100 years ago
500 years ago
1,000 years ago
10,000 years ago
ANSWER: Bread was first eaten
more than 10,000 years ago.
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The history of bread
The Egyptians first made bread more than 10,000 years ago. The first
bread was unleavened, which means it was flat, similar to a Mexican
tortilla.
Around 5,000 years ago the Egyptians started producing fermented
bread – this made the dough more spongy and the bread had more
volume. Bread consumed in the UK is made from fermented dough.
10,000 years ago
Egyptians make
first bread
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5,000 years ago
Bread is
fermented for
the first time
Today
Bread is one of
the most popular
foods in the world
The history of bread
In the UK, bread has also been consumed for
thousands of years.
Different grains have been used for bread
making, but since around 1700 one particular
grain has been used in the UK.
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Which is the most commonly
used grain for bread making in
the UK?
 Rye
 Wheat
 Oats
ANSWER: Wheat has been
the most commonly used grain
for bread making in the UK
since around 1700.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The history of bread
Until the mid-18th century white bread was only
consumed by the more wealthy, as it was more
expensive.
Today, white bread and wholemeal bread are
equally affordable, and both are a popular staple
of the UK diet.
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Different types of grains
used in bread making
Wheat
Wheat is the most commonly used grain
for bread making in the UK.
Wheat is not only used for bread, but
also for making many other products,
such as cakes, muffins, crumpets,
croissants, pastries, pizzas and biscuits.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Different types of grains
used in bread making
Wheat facts
The protein content of wheat is important in
bread making as it has a significant impact on
the finished product.
Flour made from wheat that is high in
protein/gluten is called ‘hard’ or ‘strong’
wheat, whereas flour with a lower protein
content is called ‘soft’ or ‘weak’.
Gluten is a protein naturally present in wheat
and is what makes the dough ‘stretch’.
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Different types of grains
used in bread making
Rye is also commonly used for bread
making. It is traditionally used for bread
making in Central Europe (but it is less
commonly used in the UK).
Flour from other types of grains such as
oats, barley, corn, spelt or kamut can also
be used for bread making, but these are less
commonly used in the UK and Europe.
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The structure of a grain
Endosperm – this is the largest
component of the grain and contains
the ‘floury’ bit of the grain, which is
white.
Bran – this is the outer layer or
‘skin’ of the grain; it is darker than
the endosperm.
Germ – this is the seed. It is the
smallest part of the grain and sits
between endosperm and bran; it is
rich in nutrients.
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Do you know what bread is
made from? Which of these is
not a main ingredient of bread?





Flour
Water
Yeast
Butter
Salt
ANSWER: Butter is not one
of the main ingredients of
bread.
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The principal ingredients of
bread
• Flour
– The quality of the flour is important for the quality of
bread;
– Wheat grown in the UK contains less protein than that
grown in North America; usually some imported flour has
to be added;
– Modern bread making techniques allow that more flour
from the UK is used, which decreases the reliance on
imported wheat
– When flour is moistened and stirred, beaten or kneaded,
gluten develops to give the dough ‘stretch’.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The principal ingredients of
bread
• Yeast
– Yeast is a living microscopic organism that
converts sugar or starch into alcohol and carbon
dioxide;
– Yeasts are naturally present in grains, but yeast
is added during bread making to speed up the
process;
– It is needed for the dough to rise through
fermentation and to form bread crumb;
– Yeast is also important for the typical flavour
and aroma of bread;
– High temperatures during the baking process
kill any live yeast cells.
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Which gas is produced by
yeast during the
fermentation process?
 Oxygen
 Nitrogen
 Carbon dioxide
ANSWER: During the fermentation process carbon
dioxide is produced, which causes the dough to rise.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The principal ingredients of
bread
• Salt
– Although it is usually used in small amounts,
salt is an essential ingredient in bread.
– It helps to strengthen the gluten and helps the
yeast during fermentation and is therefore
important for good volume and texture.
• Water
– Water is needed to form the dough.
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What other function
does salt have in bread?
 Locking in the moisture
 Contributor to the typical
colour of bread
 Preservative
ANSWER: Salt is a commonly
used preservative and increases the
shelf-life of bread.
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Other ingredients of bread
• Fat – vegetable fat is used in very
small quantities to keep the bread soft.
• Flour treatment agents – the most
commonly used is vitamin C; it is used
to strengthen the dough and keep it
soft.
• Emulsifiers – these are based on
vegetable oils and are used to provide
dough stability and improve volume.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Other ingredients of bread
• Enzymes – these can be added to
supplement the enzymes naturally
present in flour to minimise variations
cause by climate and soil quality. They are
destroyed by heat.
• Preservatives, such as vinegar, to
increase the shelf-life of bread.
• Soya flour to strengthen the dough and
give it better structure.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The bread making process
Bread making is a process that requires several
stages. Simply mixing the ingredients is not
enough.
To start gluten development, which is necessary
for the quality of bread, the dough needs to be
worked (kneaded).
All bread making processes rely on four key
steps. These have been used for hundreds of
years.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The 4 key steps of bread
making
1.
Mixing/kneading
–
The ingredients are mixed together
and kneaded.
–
Kneading is required for the
development of the gluten and to
incorporate air bubbles.
–
The gluten structure is also required
to catch the gas produced during
fermentation.
–
Depending on the method used
kneading happens either at slow or
high speed.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The 4 key steps of bread
making
2.
Proving/fermenting
–
During this step some of the starch
present in flour is broken down and is
fermented by the yeast and other raising
agents.
–
This process leads to the production of
carbon dioxide which causes the gluten
network to expand and therefore makes
the dough rise; the produced gas is
trapped in pockets.
–
The quality of gluten is important – if it is
too weak bubbles can burst causing a lack
of volume, if it is too strong the dough
won’t stretch enough.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
The 4 key steps of bread
making
3.
Baking
–
4.
this step is required to produce a solid
structure and deactivate the yeast.
Cooling.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
In the UK there are two main methods of making bread:
– Bulk Fermentation Process
– Chorleywood Bread Process
Other techniques are used as well, but are less common
in the UK, such as the sourdough process, or making
unleavened bread (e.g. tortillas).
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
Bulk Fermentation Process
This is the traditional way of making bread.
The ingredients are mixed together at slow speed
and the dough then rests, typically for up to 3 hours
(or even longer).
During the resting time, the yeast ferments to
inflate the dough. The dough is remixed partway
through to remove most of the larger gas cells
(‘punching’ or ‘knock-back’).
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
Bulk Fermentation Process
The time taken to reach the final stage of fermentation largely
depends on the amount of yeast and the dough temperature.
The lengthy process is partly for flavour but primarily for
structural reasons.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
Chorleywood Bread Process
This is a modern way of making bread and is the
most commonly used process in the UK to meet
bread demand.
It was developed by the British baking industry in
1961.
This process uses high speed mixers to develop the
dough. The kneading with high speed develops the
gluten structure more quickly.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
Chorleywood Bread Process
After 8-15 minutes of high-speed mixing, the dough is
left for fermentation to occur.
As the dough has been developed during mixing, the
fermentation time required is shorter (about 1 hour).
This process also allows the use of wheat flour that is
lower in protein, which means that more flour made
from British wheat can be used.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
Chorleywood Bread Process
A major advantage of this process is its shorter
production time which helps to meet the nation’s
demand for bread.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Bread making techniques
Sourdough-based Process
This method has not traditionally played
an important role in the UK, but is
commonly used in other parts of Europe.
In addition to yeast, bacteria also are
involved in the fermentation process of the
bread. This gives it its ‘sour’ taste.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Most popular types of bread
White bread - made from white flour which only
contains the endosperm, the bran and germ are removed;
Wholemeal bread - contains all parts of the grain –
endosperm, bran and germ; it is darker and is higher in
fibre;
Malted grain bread – is made from either wholemeal
flour or white flour and usually has various seeds and
grains added.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Most popular types of bread
Brown bread - can be made using different flour types
and is commonly made using a combination of white and
wholemeal flour.
Sometimes a special brown flour is milled, which contains
some of the bran layers and germ; or it can be made from
a mixture of white flour with grains and germ which give it
a browner colour.
The label on the bread usually says if wholemeal flour was
used.
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Breads of the world
Bread is one of the most popular
foods and is eaten frequently in
almost all countries throughout the
world.
Different countries have different
types of bread.
This makes bread one of the most
varied types of food.
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What breads from other
countries in the world do
you know?
How many can you name?
Have you tried any?
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Mexico
Tortillas
Germany
Sourdough
bread
South
America
Corn bread
France
Baguette
India/
Pakistan/Iran
Naan
Italy
Focaccia
Turkey
Bazlama
(Flatbread)
Ireland
Soda bread
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Greece/
Middle East
Pita
Somalia/Ethiopia
Injera
Summary
 Bread has been an important part of people’s diet
for thousands of years.
 Wheat has been the most popular grain used for
bread making in the UK for many years.
 The main ingredients of bread are flour, yeast,
salt and water.
 The bread making process comprises four stages:
mixing, fermenting, baking and cooling.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Summary
 The two main bread making processes used in
the UK are the Bulk Fermentation Process and
the Chorleywood Bread Process.
 The latter allows bread to be made at a higher
speed and lower cost.
 Different types of bread use different types of
flour.
© FAB and AHDB 2013
Quiz
Time to test your knowledge!
Home
End
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Question 1
Which grain is most commonly used for
bread making in the UK?
A. Rye
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B. Wheat
C. Barley
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try again
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Next
question
Question 2
Which of these is not a principal ingredient
in bread?
A. Sugar
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B. Salt
C. Yeast
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try again
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Next
question
Question 3
Which part of a grain is not removed when
making white flour?
A. Bran
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B. Germ
C. Endosperm
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try again
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Next
question
Question 4
Which of the following is the most
commonly used method for bread making in
the UK?
A. Bulk fermentation
process
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B. Sourdough
process
C. Chorleywood
process
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try again
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Next
question
Question 5
Which type of bread is most popular in the
UK?
A. White bread
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B. Granary bread
C. Wholemeal bread
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try again
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Next
question
Question 6
Focaccia bread is widely consumed in which
country?
A. Greece
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B. Italy
C. Germany
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try again
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Next
question
Question 7
What nutrient defines how ‘hard’ or ‘strong’
flour is?
A. Fibre
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B. Starch
C. Protein
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try
again
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Next
question
Question 8
What type of nutrient is gluten?
A. Sugar
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B. Starch
C. Protein
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try
again
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Next
question
Question 9
Why is gluten important in bread making?
A. It is a
preservative
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B. It gives the dough
elasticity
C. It produces
carbon dioxide
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try
again
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Next
question
Question 10
What is yeast required for?
A. Fermentation
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B. Elasticity of
dough
C. Holding in gas
bubbles
Correct!
Next
question
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Incorrect
Try
again
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Next
question
Question 11
Which of these nutrients is broken down
during fermentation?
A. Salt
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B. Starch
C. Protein
Correct!
End of
quiz
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Incorrect
Try
again
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End of
quiz
© FAB and AHDB 2013
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