Chap 10 Teaching or supervising

Report
Chapter 10
The Behavior Analyst as a
Teacher or Supervisor
Casi M. Healey, MA, BCBA
Caldwell College
Overview
• Introduction
• Guidelines 5.0-5.11: Behavior Analyst as Teacher and/or
Supervisor
• American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines
• National Association of School Psychologists (NASP):
Principles for Professional Ethics
• Summary
• Questions
• References
Introduction
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• After becoming a Board Certified Behavior
Analyst (BCBA), most become supervisors.
▫ Training others is an essential part of the BCBA’s
job
 “Scope of practice”
 Caution: Do not train behavior change procedures if
the procedures may be implemented incorrectly
 Individuals with little training, no advance degrees
and/or certifications
 Overall, it is the behavior analyst’s responsibility to
train and provide follow-up
Introduction
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• BCBA’s as teachers or instructors:
▫ Must outline clear course objectives, requirements, and
evaluation procedures
▫ Use behavior analytic principles while teaching
▫ Remedial skill training should be recommended if student (or
supervisee) does not possess the necessary prerequisite skills
▫ Study objectives, active responding, frequent testing, and prompt
feedback are preferred by students
Behavior Analyst as Teacher or Supervisor
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.0
▫ The behavior analysts delegate to their employees,
supervisors, and research assistants only those
responsibilities that such persons can reasonably be
expected to perform competently.
• Use judgment when delegating responsibility of
particular tasks to assistants or employees
▫ General rule: Observe the individual performing the actual
task under close supervision before allowing them to do it
on their own
Designing Competent Training Programs (5.01)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.01
▫ Behavior analysts that are responsible for education and
training programs need to ensure that supervisory
activities
▫ Designed competently
▫ Proper experiences are provided
▫ The requirements for certification, licensure, or other
program goals are met
• Course design is important!
▫ Need to provide the necessary experiences to teach
behavior analytic skills……Not just lecturing!
Limitations on Training (5.02)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.02:
▫ Behavior analysts do not teach the use of techniques or
procedures that require specialized training, licensure, or
expertise in other disciplines to individuals who lack the
prerequisite training, legal scope of practice, or expertise, except
as these techniques may be used in behavioral evaluation of the
effects of various treatments interventions, therapies, or
educational methods.
• Behavior analysts do not train classroom aides or
assistants on behavioral procedures without necessary
prerequisite skills
▫ Data collection is the only exception
Providing Course or Supervision Objectives (5.03)
Describing Course Requirements (5.04) &
Describing Evaluation Requirements (5.05)
• 5.03
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
▫ The behavior analyst provides a clear description of a course or
supervision, preferably in writing, at the beginning of the course or
supervisory relationship.
• 5.04
▫ The behavior analyst provides a clear description of the demand of
the supervisory relationship or course (e.g., papers, exams,
projects, reports, intervention plans, graphic displays, and face-toface meetings) preferably in writing at the beginning of the
supervisory relationship or course.
• 5.05
▫ The behavior analyst provides a clear description of the
requirements for the evaluation of student/supervisee
performance at the beginning of the supervisory relationship or
course
Providing Course or Supervision Objectives (5.03) Describing
Course Requirements (5.04) &
Describing Evaluation Requirements (5.05)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• Written objectives should be provided
▫ Course (syllabus)
Providing Course or Supervision Objectives (5.03) Describing Course
Requirements (5.04) &
Describing Evaluation Requirements (5.05)
Providing Feedback to Students and Supervisees (5.06)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
▫ 5.06
 The behavior analyst provides feedback regarding the
performance of a student or supervisee at least once per two
weeks or consistent with the BACB requirements
▫ Behavior analyst teachers should provide feedback as often
as possible and closely follow performance
▫ BACB requirements should be adhered to during
supervision which is once every two weeks
▫ http://www.bacb.com/index.php?page=69
▫ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxki7-4EfJg
(BACB,2011)
Feedback to Student/Supervisees (5.07)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.07
▫ The behavior analyst provides feedback to the
student/supervisee in a way that increases the
probability that the student/supervisee will benefit
from the feedback.
• Provide feedback that is:
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫
Immediate
Individualized
Paired with positive reinforcement
Descriptive
Presented graphically
Reinforcing Student/Supervisee Behavior (5.08)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.08
▫ The behavior analyst uses positive reinforcement as frequently
as the behavior of the student/supervisee and the environmental
conditions allow.
• Positive reinforcement can be in the form of:
▫ Kind words (“You’re doing a great job”)
▫ Behavior specific praise ( “I like how you appropriately
faded your manual prompts while teaching tooth
brushing”)
▫ Choice of work environments
▫ Assignment to a challenging case
Utilizing Behavior Analysis Principles in Teaching (5.09)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.09
▫ The behavior analyst utilizes as many principles of
behavior analysis in teaching a course as the
material, conditions, and academic policies allow.
• Empirically-validated teaching methods should be used
throughout the course:
▫ Frequent quizzes
▫ Immediate feedback
▫ Study objectives
▫ Interactive teaching strategies
▫ Computer-assisted learning
Requirements of Supervisees (5.10)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.10
▫ The behavior analyst’s behavioral requirements of a supervisee must be
in the behavioral repertoire of the supervisee. If the behavior required is
not in the supervisee’s repertoire, the behavior analyst attempts to
provide the conditions for the acquisition of the required behavior, and
refers the supervisee for remedial skill development services, or
provides them with such services, permitting them to meet at least
minimal behavioral performance requirements.
• Both parties are aware of the requirements for the supervision
experience ahead of time
▫ Supervisor: Explain what will be expected
▫ Supervisee: Describe their current skill set
▫ Remediation is required if these don’t match
• Underlying assumption: Supervisee will acquire skills and
confidence in behavioral procedures and we DO NOT want them to
fail
Training, Supervision, and Safety (5.11)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 5.11
▫ Behavior analysts provide proper training, supervision, and safety
precautions to their employees or supervisees and take reasonable steps
to see that such persons perform services responsibly, competently, and
ethically. If institutional policies, procedures, or practices prevent
fulfillment of this obligation, behavior analysts attempt to modify their
role or to correct the situation to the extent feasible.
• Behavior analyst supervisor is responsible to provide appropriate
training opportunities for supervisee to acquire skills in behavioral
procedures
• Ensure their safety
• Possible training in crisis management
APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists
(APA, 2002)
• Standard 2: Competence
▫ 2.01 Boundaries of Competence
 (a) Psychologists provide services, teach and conduct research with
populations and in areas only within the boundaries of their
competence, based on their education, training, supervised
experience, consultation, study or professional experience.
 e) In those emerging areas in which generally recognized standards
for preparatory training do not yet exist, psychologists nevertheless
take reasonable steps to ensure the competence of their work and to
protect clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants,
organizational clients and others from harm.
APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists
(APA, 2002)
• Standard 2: Competence
▫ 2.05 Delegation of Work to Others
 Psychologists who delegate work to employees,
supervisees or research or teaching assistants or who use
the services of others, such as interpreters, take
reasonable steps to (1) avoid delegating such work to
persons who have a multiple relationship with those
being served that would likely lead to exploitation or loss
of objectivity; (2) authorize only those responsibilities
that such persons can be expected to perform
competently on the basis of their education, training or
experience, either independently or with the level of
supervision being provided; and (3) see that such persons
perform these services competently
APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists
(APA, 2002)
• Standard 7: Education and Training
▫ 7.01 Design of Education and Training Programs
 Psychologists responsible for education and training programs take
reasonable steps to ensure that the programs are designed to provide
the appropriate knowledge and proper experiences, and to meet the
requirements for licensure, certification or other goals for which
claims are made by the program.
▫ 7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs
 Psychologists responsible for education and training programs
take reasonable steps to ensure that there is a current and
accurate description of the program content (including
participation in required course- or program-related
counseling, psychotherapy, experiential groups, consulting
projects or community service), training goals and objectives,
stipends and benefits and requirements that must be met for
satisfactory completion of the program. This information must
be made readily available to all interested parties.
APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists
(APA, 2002)
• 7.03 Accuracy in Teaching
▫ a) Psychologists take reasonable steps to ensure that course
syllabi are accurate regarding the subject matter to be covered,
bases for evaluating progress and the nature of course
experiences. This standard does not preclude an instructor from
modifying course content or requirements when the instructor
considers it pedagogically necessary or desirable, so long as
students are made aware of these modifications in a manner that
enables them to fulfill course requirements.
▫ (b) When engaged in teaching or training, psychologists present
psychological information accurately.
APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists
(APA, 2002)
• 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information
▫ Psychologists do not require students or supervisees to disclose personal
information in course- or program-related activities, either orally or in
writing, regarding sexual history, history of abuse and neglect,
psychological treatment and relationships with parents, peers and
spouses or significant others except if (1) the program or training facility
has clearly identified this requirement in its admissions and program
materials or (2) the information is necessary to evaluate or obtain
assistance for students whose personal problems could reasonably be
judged to be preventing them from performing their training- or
professionally related activities in a competent manner or posing a threat
to the students or others.
APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists
(APA, 2002)
• 7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance
▫ (a) In academic and supervisory relationships, psychologists
establish a timely and specific process for providing feedback to
students and supervisees. Information regarding the process is
provided to the student at the beginning of supervision.
▫ (b) Psychologists evaluate students and supervisees on the basis
of their actual performance on relevant and established program
requirements.
**Extra Info**
• http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx#
NASP Principles for Professional Ethics
(NASP,2000)
• F. School Psychologist Trainees and Interns
▫ 1. School psychologists who supervise interns are responsible for
all professional practices of the supervisees. They assure children
and other clients and the profession that the intern is adequately
supervised as designated by the practice guidelines and training
standards for school psychologists.
▫ 2. School psychologists who conduct or administer training
programs provide trainees and prospective trainees with accurate
information regarding program
sponsorships/endorsements/accreditation, goals/objectives,
training processes and requirements, and likely outcomes and
benefits.
NASP Principles for Professional Ethics
(NASP,2000)
• 3. School psychologists who are faculty members in colleges or
universities or who supervise clinical or field placements apply these
ethical principles in all work with school psychology trainees. In
addition, they promote the ethical practice of trainees by providing
specific and comprehensive instruction, feedback, and mentoring.
• 4. School psychology faculty members and clinical or field
supervisors uphold recognized standards of the profession by
providing training related to high quality, responsible, and researchbased school psychology services. They provide accurate and
objective information in their teaching and training activities;
identify any limitations in information; and acknowledge
disconfirming data, alternative hypotheses, and explanations.
• 5. School psychology faculty members and clinical or field
supervisors develop and use evaluation practices for
trainees that are objective, accurate, and fair.
Summary
• The BACB provides specific guidelines for the
behavior analyst as a teacher/supervisor
• Review of APA and NASP guidelines reveal
similar ethical standards; however, some appear
to be broad and left to interpretation
• Future consideration for additional BACB
guidelines could include:
▫ Failure to be paid for services
▫ Criteria to become a supervisor
Questions?
Thank You!
References
• American Psychological Association. (2002). American
Psychological Association ethical principles of psychologists
and code of conduct.
http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html
• Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2011). Ethics for behavior analysts
(2nd Expanded Edition). Routledge.
• Behavior Analyst Certification Board Guidelines for Responsible
Conduct (new 4th edition):
http://www.bacb.com/pages/conduct.html
• National Association of School Psychologists Principles for
Professional Ethics (2000):
http://www.nasponline.org/standards/professionalcond.pdf
• YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxki7-4EfJg

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