Qualitative Research Methods and Descriptive Research

Report
Qualitative Research
Methods
and
Descriptive Research
Rami Ghannam and Robert Konow Jr.
Qualitative Research
"A set of research techniques in which data is
obtained from a relatively small group of
respondents and not analyzed with statistical
techniques." -wordnik.com
"Data-gathering techniques that are focused on
the significance of observations made in a
study rather than the raw numbers
themselves." -thefreedictionary.com
Qualitative Research
Qualitative researchers study things in their
natural settings, attempting to make sense of,
or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the
meanings people bring to them (Denzin
1994)
Qualitative Research
many different approaches
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Case Study
Ethnography
Phenomenological Study
Grounded Theory Study
Content Analysis
and more...
Qualitative Research
What do all these approaches have in
common?
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focus on occurrences in natural settings
involve capturing and studying the
complexity of those phenomena
Qualitative Research
When studying human centered events like:
interpersonal relationships
social structures
creative products
etc.
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Issue of Objectivity.
Qualitative Research
"The researcher is an instrument"
instead of:
scales
formulas
surveys
questionnaires
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It's just you.
Qualitative Research
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No one Ultimate Truth
differing Perspectives
o cultural
o social
o economical
o etc
Goal: reveal these perspectives
Qualitative Research
General Questions(open ended)
into
refined questions
into
specific questions and hypotheses
Qualitative Research
Requires lots of preparation and planning.
Researchers must be trained in:
Observational Techniques
Interview Strategies
Data Collection Techniques
also have an understanding of previous
research in the area being studied
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Qualitative Research
When to use?
Description.
Qualitative approach can reveal different
perspectives in different
situations
settings
process
relations
people
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Qualitative Research
Interpretation.
Enable a researcher to:
gain new insights about a particular
phenomenon
develop new concepts or theoretical
perspectives about the phenomenon
discover problems that exist within said
phenomenon
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Qualitative Research
Verification.
They allow a researcher to test the validity of
certain assumptions, claims, theories or
generalizations within real-world contexts.
Evaluation.
They provide a means through which a
researcher can judge the effectiveness of
particular policies, practices or innovations.
Qualitative Research
What they don't do.
They do not allow the researcher to identify
causal relationships.
You need Quantitative for that.
can use results from Qualitative and apply
Quantitative techniques(Mixed Method)
Qualitative Research
Research Designs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Case Study
Ethnography
Phenomenological Study
Grounded Theory
Content Analysis
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
aka idiographic research
a particular individual, program or event is
studied in depth for a defined period of time.
"A medical researcher might study the nature,
course and treatment of a rare illness for a
particular patient." -LO p.141
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
single case for uniqueness.
ie Threadless for Harvard Business
http://www.hbs.edu/videos/threadlessmultimedia-case.html
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
multiple cases
-to make comparisons
-propose generalizations
good for little known or poorly understood
situations. ie 7-up series
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
Weaknesses
esp in single case
findings may not be generalizable
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
Method
-Collect data on individuals, programs or events
(interviews, observations,documents, records,
and AV materials)
much gathered on site
including INTERACTIONS with subjects
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
Method
-record data about:
-context about the case
-physical environment
-historical
-economic
-social
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
Data Analysis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Organization of details about the case.
Categorization of Data
Interpretation of single instances
Identification of patterns
Synthesis and generalizations
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Case Study
Parts of the report
1. A rationale for studying the case.
2. A detailed description of the facts related to
the case.
3. A description of the data you collected.
4. A discussion of the patterns you found.
5. A connection to the larger scheme of things.
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
The researcher looks in depth at an entire
group that shares a common culture.
-in natural setting
-long time frame(months, years)
(ie Jane Goodall)
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Focus on everyday behavior of the group
o
o
o
interactions
language
rituals
Focus defines:
cultural norms
o beliefs
o social structures
o etc
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Focus defines explicit patterns
but also
Implicit
below the surface
taken for granted
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Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Focus on culture
o
started studying long standing cultural
groups(Margaret Mead)
o
work environments
schools
virtual communities
o
o
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Method
Must be on site fieldwork in the natural setting
Find the gatekeeper
someone in power or esteem
o gain trust
o explain about observation
o
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Method
Meet and Interact with everyone
Key informants to focus on answering the
research questions and find more helpful
participants
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Method
Participant Observation
o
o
o
o
immersed with subjects
outsider to insider
hard to remain objective
"go native" and join the tribe
Role of the Researcher
o observer
o interviewer
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Method
Field notes(right away or away from the group)
o
o
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dialogues
diagrams
maps
etc
AV
o Audio recorder
o Video recorder
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Method
Artifacts
o
o
o
tools
ritualistic implements
artistic creations
Records
o
journals, paperwork, etc
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Method
Breaching Experiments
o
o
violate the assumptions of the culture
document reactions
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Data Analysis
1. Description.
Organize data in a logical form.

time based
 typical day
 critical event
 story with plot, characters, arc
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Data Analysis
2. Analysis.
categorized according to meaning.
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patterns
regularities
critical events
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Data Analysis
3. Interpretation.
get the nature of the group
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patterns
regularities
critical events
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
Data Analysis
almost impossible to be objective.
strive for rigorous subjectivity(Wolcott 1994)
balance
o fairness
o completeness
o sensitivity
o
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
The report.
Narrative! not necessarily impersonal as other
research
Storytelling
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Ethnography
The report.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Introduction with rationale and context
A description of the settings and methods
An analysis of the group studied
A conclusion
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Phenomenological Study
"a study that attempts to understand people's
perceptions, perspectives and
understandings of a particular situation."
What is it like for Bob and Rami to be teaching?
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Phenomenological Study
Method.
Interviews
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lengthy(1-2 hours)
carefully selected participants
sample size from 5-25
direct experience with what is being studied
unstructured
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Phenomenological Study
Method.
Researcher must actively listen for clues.
o
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everyday experiences
subtle hints
expressions
pauses
questions
tangents
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Phenomenological Study
Method.
Conversation.
Researcher: Listening
Participant: Talking
bracketing or epoché:
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Phenomenological Study
Data Analysis.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Identify statements that relate to the topic
Group statements into "meaning units"
Seek divergent perspectives
Construct a composite
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Phenomenological Study
The report.
Choose your own adventure.
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Research Problem or question
Describe Methods and analysis
Draw a conclusion
Relate to previous findings
Discuss implications
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Starts with data moves to theory.
grounded refers to "the idea that the theory that
emerges from the study is derived from and
rooted in data that have been collected in the
field rather than taken from the research
literature."
-LO p.146
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Good to use when current theories are not
available or inadequate.
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Focus on process
o
actions and interactions
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Before undertaking:
-must have a firm grasp on general theories
and concepts being studied in the discipline
as a whole.
Literature Review!
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Possibly don't look at the exact research
question/problem literature.
Need an open mind
but could help think about new information
Keep away from hypotheses
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Method.
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Field work
interviews
observations
documents
records
AV
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Method.
Must have perspective of the people being
studied
Starts immediately via categorization of data
then start saturating the categories
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Method.
Constant Comparative Method:
Moving back and forth between data collection
and data analysis.
Theories evolve based on concepts and
relationships among the context of concepts.
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Data Analysis.
Disagreement among the experts. One way:
1. Open Coding
Data divided into segments.
Reviewed for commonalities.
Put into categories and look for
subcategories
(reducing into themes)
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Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Data Analysis.
2. Axial Coding
connections made between categories
and subcategories.
conditions
context
strategies
consequences
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Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Data Analysis.
Move between Open and Axial Coding
refine connections.
combine and divide categories as data is
collected
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Data Analysis.
3. Selective Coding
The categories and relationships are combined
to create a storyline that describes "what
happens" -LO p.147
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Data Analysis.
4. Development of a theory.
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verbal
visual
hypotheses
(all based on data collected)
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Grounded Theory
Report.
Objective and Impersonal.
1. Description of Research question
2. A review of related literature
3. A description of your methodology and data
analysis
4. A presentation of your theory
5. A discussion of implications
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Content Analysis
"is a detailed and systematic examination of the
contents of a particular body of material for
the purpose of identifying patterns, themes or
biases." -LO p.148
Performed on forms of human communication.
books, newspapers, journals, documents
AV(film, music, video, audio)
blogs and bulletin board entries.
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Qualitative Research
Research Design - Content Analysis
Beginning:
Define research problem
Identifies the sample to be studied.
Identifies the method to be used.
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Content Analysis
Method.
1. Identify body of material to be studied.
small body(study it all)
large(study a sample)
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2. Defines characteristics or qualities to be
examined. (May define specific examples to
clarify.)
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Content Analysis
Method.
3. If material is long or complex, chunked.
4. Reviews material for instances of
characteristics previously defined.
one person to rate when objective, more when
subjective.
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Content Analysis
Data Analysis.
Count up the frequency of each characteristic.
(quantitative)
Can run statistical analysis on it too if needed.
Interpret.
Qualitative Research
Research Design - Content Analysis
Report.
1. Description of the body of material studied.
2. Precise definitions and descriptions of the
characteristics you looked for.
3. The coding or rating procedure.
4. Tabulations for each characteristic.
5. A description of patterns that the data
reflect.
Qualitative Research
Generalities
How to collect data in an emerging design
(data collected impacts what data to collect
further in the study)
Data is only limited by what the researcher
considers data.
Very time intensive.
Qualitative Research
Generalities
Always keep field notes.
Always anonymize the data. Assign numbers
to subjects or pseudonyms.
Qualitative Research
Sampling.
Researcher probably can not cover everything.
Limit sample based on what the research
question/problem entails.
Random selection of representative subgroups.
BUT...
Qualitative Research
Sampling.
Qualitative sometimes uses nonrandom
sampling.
Purposeful as to yield most information for the
study.
Qualitative Research
Sampling.
How to make this work.
1. Use typical and non-typical examples.
2. Take from levels of the hierarchy.
3. Actively look for cases that discredit the
emerging hypotheses and theories
Qualitative Research
Observations.
Unstructured and free flowing to allow for
serendipity.
Won't always know what is important and what
is not.
Observation changes the situation.
Qualitative Research
Observations.
1. Before fieldwork, figure out how to
document. Practice them.
2. Be introduced and explain your study to
participants.
3. Observe quietly but be approachable.
4. If notes, 2 columns, one for observations
and one for thoughts/theories/hypotheses.
(don't confuse observations for interpretations.)
Qualitative Research
Interviews.
Data you can get:
Facts
Beliefs and perspectives
Feelings
Motives
Present and past behaviors
Standards for behaviors
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Qualitative Research
Interviews.
BUT...
Human memory recall is no match for actual
observations.
Try to offset any information on past behavior
with other data.
Qualitative Research
Interviews.
Focus Groups.
no more than 12 people.
possibly have a different moderator.
good when resources are limited.
good for groups to share thoughts and feelings
understand group dynamics
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Qualitative Research
Interviews.
HOWTO
1. Identify questions in advance.
o
o
o
possibly limit to 5 to 7 main questions.
focus on emerging thoughts from the participant
don't be overt in what you are seeking
Qualitative Research
Interviews.
HOWTO
2. Consider cultural bias and influencers.
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religion
societal
3. Make sure participants are representative of
the group.
Qualitative Research
Interviews.
HOWTO
4.
5.
6.
7.
Find a good location.
Get written consent.
Establish rapport.
Focus on reality not abstract or hypothetical.
Qualitative Research
Interviews.
HOWTO
8. Don't speak for the participants
9. Record responses verbatim
10. Keep your reactions to yourself.
11. Don't think everything is a fact.
Qualitative Research
Data Analysis Spiral
1. Organize the data.
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on paper
in a database
chunk out
2. Review the data as a whole
o multiple times
o comment to yourself via notes/memos
Qualitative Research
Data Analysis Spiral
3. Categorize
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generalize
themes
subcategories
patterns
Conclusion: What does it all mean?
Qualitative Research
Data Analysis Spiral
4. Integrate and Summarize
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hypotheses
theories
generalizations
models
diagrams
Qualitative Research
How to evaluate a qualitative study?
1.
2.
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6.
7.
8.
9.
Purposefulness
Explicitness of assumptions and bias
Rigor
Open-mindedness
Completeness
Coherence
Persuasiveness
Consensus
Usefulness
Where is Quantitative used?
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Description involves the systematic
observation and cataloging of components of a
natural system in a manner that can be utilized
and replicated by other scientists.
Description is commonly used as a research
method to explain unique natural systems
(such as in ecology or chemistry), large-scale
phenomena (such as in astronomy), or past
events (such as in geology or forensic
science).
Descriptive Research Designs
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Observation Studies
Correlational Research
Developmental Designs
Survey Research
Observation Studies
Characteristics:
- might involve humans, animals, plants, nonliving objects
- tends to have a particular prespecified focus
- behavior being studied is quantified in some way
- involves considerable advance planning, meticulous
attention to detail, and a great deal of time
- provides a quantitative alternative to qualitative
approaches, such as ethnographies and grounded theory
studies
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8-85
Maintaining Objectivity in Observation
Studies
• Define the behavior studied precisely and concretely so that it
is easily recognized when it occurs.
• Divide the observation period into small segments and record
whether the behavior does or does not occur in each
segment.
• Use a rating scale to evaluate the behavior in terms of
specific dimensions.
• Have two or three people rate the same behavior
independently, without knowledge of one another’s ratings.
• Train the raters to use specific criteria when counting or
evaluating the behavior; continue training until consistent
ratings are obtained for any single occurrence of the
behavior.
Example: Eclipse Phenomenon
•
By the 4th century BCE, the Mesopotamians
developed a comprehensive lunar theory from
the observations of previous eclipses.
Correlational research
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The extent to which one variable is related to
another.
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Correlation does not indicate causation. For,
example, a child’s age certainly influences his
reading ability, but that’s not enough to say it’s
a cause and effect.
Correlational research
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Which graph has the strongest correlation?
Developmental Designs
Used especially when we want to study how a
particular characteristic changes as people
grow older.
• Two designs:
- Cross sectional study: people form different
age groups are studied.
- Longitudinal study: a single group of people is
followed over the course of several months or
years.
•
Survey Research
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The researcher asks a series of questions to
willing participants, then makes charts and
statistical studies.
Survey Research
• Involves acquiring information about one or more groups of people —
about their characteristics, opinions, attitudes, etc. – by asking them
questions and tabulating the answers.
• Goal is to learn about a large population by surveying a sample of that
population.
• Also called a descriptive survey or normative survey.
• Simple design – the researcher poses a series of questions, quantifies
the responses, and draws inferences about a particular population
from the responses of the sample.
• Captures a fleeting moment of time; by drawing conclusions from the
transitory collection of data, extrapolation can be made about state
of affairs over a longer period of time.
• Relies on self-report data.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8-92
Types of Survey Research
• face-to-face interview
• telephone interview
• written questionnaire
• the Internet
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8-93
Survey Research Methods
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Face-to-face
Survey Research Methods
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Telephone interviews
Survey Research Methods
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Written questionnaire
A current example
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Measurements of CO2 concentrations in the
atmosphere, such as on the Hawaiian volcano
Mauna.
Forms of Interview
• Structured - the researcher asks a standard
set of questions and nothing more;
• Semistructured - the researcher may follow
the standard questions with one or more
individually tailored questions to get
clarification or probe a person’s reasoning.
Using checklists and rating scale
•
Checklist: a list of behaviors, characteristics,
or other entities under investigation.
• Rating Scale: used when a behavior, attitude, or
other phenomenon of interest needs to be
evaluated on a continuum (“never” to “always”)
- Likert Scale
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8-99
Guidelines:
Conducting Interviews in a Quantitative Study
1.
Identify questions in advance.
2.
Consider how participants’ cultural backgrounds may influence responses.
3.
Make sure interviewees are representative of the group.
4.
Find a suitable location.
5.
Get written permission.
6.
Establish and maintain rapport.
7.
Focus on the actual rather than on the abstract/hypothetical.
8. Don’t put words in people’s mouths.
9. Record responses verbatim.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8100
Guidelines:
Conducting Interviews in a Quantitative Study
10. Keep your reactions to yourself.
11. Remember you’re not necessarily getting the facts.
12. As you write questions, think about how to quantify responses.
13. Consider asking questions that will elicit qualitative information.
14. Pilot-test the questions.
15. Restrict each question to a single idea.
16. Save controversial questions for the latter part of the interview.
17. Seek clarifying information when necessary.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8101
Guidelines:
Constructing a questionnaire
1. Keep it short.
2. Keep the respondent’s task simple.
3. Provide clear instructions.
4. Use simple, clear, unambiguous language.
5. Give a rationale for any item for which the purpose is unclear.
6. Check for unwarranted assumptions implicit in the question.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8102
Guidelines:
Constructing a questionnaire
7.
Word questions in ways that don’t give clues about preferred or
more desirable responses.
8.
Determine in advance how you will code the responses.
9.
Check for consistency.
10. Conduct one or more pilot tests to determine the validity of your
questionnaire.
11. Scrutinize the almost-final product one more time to make sure it
addresses your needs.
12. Make the questionnaire attractive and professional looking.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8103
Guidelines:
Maximizing he return rate for a mailed questionnaire
1. Consider the timing.
2. Make a good first impression.
3. Motivate potential respondents.
4. Include a self-addressed, stamped
envelope.
5. Offer the results of your study.
6. Be gently persistent.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8104
Practical Application:
Computerizing Data Collection Descriptive Research
1. Directly enter data as an observation is made.
2. Use the computer as a tape recorder.
3. Look for peripheral devices that can aid data collection.
4. Administer a questionnaire on a computer.
5. Use the computer to monitor the quality of the data being collected.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8105
Sampling Designs in a Descriptive Study
• Probability Sampling: the researcher specifies in
advance that each segment of the population is
represented in the sample.
• Nonprobability Sampling: the researcher has no
way of forecasting or guaranteeing that each
element of the population will be represented
in the sample. Some members of the population
have little or no chance of being sampled.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8106
Probability Sampling
• Random selection: choosing a sample in such a
way that each member of the population has an
equal chance of being selected; assumes that the
characteristics of the sample approximate the
characteristics of the total population.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8107
Probability Sampling Techniques
▪ simple random sampling: least sophisticated of all sampling
designs; sample is chosen by simple random selection.
▪ stratified random sampling: the researcher samples equally from
each one of the layers in an overall population.
▪ proportional stratified sampling: the researcher samples proportionally
from each one of the layers in an overall population.
▪ cluster sampling: occurs when the population of interest is spread out
over a large area; the large area is subdivided into smaller units;
a subset of identified clusters is randomly selected.
▪ systematic sampling: involves selecting individuals according to a
predetermined sequence, which must originate by chance.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8108
NonProbability Sampling Techniques
• Convenience sampling: also known as accidental sampling;
takes samples that are readily available; appropriate for
less demanding research problems.
• Quota sampling: a variation of convenience sampling;
selects participants in the same proportion that they are
found in the general population, but not in a random
fashion.
• Purposive sampling: participants are chosen for a particular
purpose; the researcher must always provide a rationale
explaining the selection of a particular sample.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8109
Choosing an appropriate Sample Size
• The larger the sample, the better.
• For smaller populations (N=100 or fewer), survey the entire
population.
• If population is around 500, sample 50%.
• If population is around 1,500, sample 20%.
• If population is over 5,000, a sample size of 400 is fine.
• The larger the population, the smaller the percentage
needed for a representative
8- sample.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
110
Sampling Bias
• Bias: any influence, condition, or set of conditions that
singly or in combination distort the data.
• Sampling Bias: any influence that may disturb the
randomness by which the choice of a sample population
has been selected.
• Strategies for identifying sampling bias:
- Scrutinize the questionnaire for items that may be influenced by factors that
distinguish respondents from nonrespondents.
- Compare responses that were returned quickly with those that were returned
later (may reflect the kinds of responses that nonrespondents would have given.
- Randomly select a small number of nonrespondents and match their answers
8against those of respondents.
Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
111
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Description in modern practice
•
Advances with the technology.
•
Example:
X-ray diffraction for soil
mineral identification.
Limitations of the descriptive
method
•
•
Challenging to establish cause and effect
relationship.
Systematic description can also easily lead to
unscientific explanations, example: Greek
mythology.
Quantitative vs Qualitative

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