Teacher Performance Assessment The Winthrop University Experience Stevie Chepko Winthrop Experience • Presentation is based on the my experience completing the TPA process in the spring and fall semesters (N=16). • Suggestions and tips are based on what I learned during the process. • Not officially speaking for TPA or SCALE. • Sharing the things I learned while guiding teacher candidates through the process during a seminar that was concurrent with internship. Outline of the Presentation • Review the three required tasks • Brief overview of the electronic process • Focus on – Lesson plans – Assessments • Interactive session – Ask questions or request clarification at anytime during the presentation Things I Didn’t Need To Worry About • Electronic Process – System is simple to use – Candidates had no problems using the system – Video clips • Need to have access to an editing process (i.e. Microsoft MovieMaker) • Enough space on the drive to store clips for editing • Candidates and students must be heard on the tape since Task 2 rubrics are directly linked to video clips – Equipment used for clips • Any video camera will probably work for filming within a classroom • Boom microphone should sufficient sound in the classroom • Must be able to hear both the candidate and students Handbook • There are three task with 15 rubrics – Rubrics have common components across all disciplines – One new rubric on “Student Use of Feedback” has been added across disciplines – Some exceptions for specific disciplines on the number of rubrics (Elementary Education has four task) Website Address • TPAC online – htttpaconline.ning.com/main/authorization/signIn ?target=http%3A%2F%2Ftpaconline.ning.com%2F p:// – Site has useful information for candidates and teachers – Candidates registrar through this site General Rules • Candidates selects one class • Lesson plans, assessments, and video clips are with that one class • Focus students are in the one class • Candidates must provide 1 or 2 video clips from the class – Combined clips cannot exceed 15 to 20 minutes – Some exceptions for time of clips (variations among content areas) – Clips cannot be edited once it starts • Rules about submissions are different for special education (one or two students, etc.) General Methods of Submission • Used Blackboard to post each of the tasks for candidates/LiveText/TaskStream – Can use the site directly – Candidates can submit drafts and you do have the opportunity to provide limited feedback (more on how much feedback you can give later) – Should backward map key components of EDtpa into earlier coursework • Lesson planning • Assessment • Interpreting and applying data to educational decision making Task 1: Context • Candidates provide information on the context in which they are teaching – Level – Special features – Facilities – Any specific mentor, school or district requirements –There are minor variations across disciplines about the class Task 1: Context Elementary • Time devoted each day to language & literacy instruction • Ability grouping or tracking in literacy – describe affect on class • Identify any textbook or instructional program(full citing) • List other resources • Student information & chart the same • • • • • • Secondary History/Social Studies Name & length of course Class schedule (minutes/days per wk) Ability grouping/tracking specific to history/social studies Identify textbook (full citing) Other resources Student information & chart the same Using Blackboard for Assignments • Posted the Context page as an attachment on Blackboard for candidates to complete. • Reproduce the chart as a table • Have candidates provide the required information as an assignment • Semester of submission – candidates submit through the system and you have the opportunity to provide feedback • Rules on how much feedback is allowed will be discussed later in the presentation. Context Page Task 1 Elementary – Literacy • One class as focus • Select a learning segment – 3-5 lessons (must submit each lesson in the segment) – 3 to 5 hours of connected instruction • Identify central focus – Strategy for comprehending or composing text & requisite skill Early Childhood • One class as focus • Select a learning segment – 3-5 learning experiences • Identify central focus – Should support children’s language & literacy development – Interdisciplinary context – Active & multimodal learning experiences Task I (cont.) Elementary – Literacy Early Childhood • Submit a lesson plan for each lesson in the learning segment • Submit key instructional materials (artifacts) • Response to commentary prompts prior to teaching • Choose one language function – identify a learning task where students use the language function. • Submit copies or directions for all planned assessments for learning segment • Submit a lesson plan for each learning experience in learning segment • Submit key instructional materials • Response to commentary prompts prior to teaching • Choose a learning experience to analyze children’s vocabulary use. Identify language that children are expected to use to engage in learning experience. • Submit copies or directions for all planned assessments for learning segment. Task 1 History/Social Studies Physical Education • One class • Learning segment • One class – Same students everyday = 3-5 lessons – Once a week = 3-4 lessons – Block – 3-5 hours – 3 to 5 lessons or 3-5 hours of connected instruction • Central focus – Learn & use fact, concepts, & interpretations or analyses to build arguments • Submit lessons plans for each lesson • Submit key instructional materials • • • • Central focus Analyze language demands Submit 3 to 5 lesson plans Submit key instructional materials • Submit copies of all written assessments Lesson Plans Elementary Early Childhood • State-adopted student academic content and/or Common Core • State-adopted student academic content and/or NAEYC Standards and NBPTS Generalist Standards – Must include the number and text of the content standard • Learning objectives for content standards • Formal & informal assessments (includes types of assessment & what is being assessed) • Instructional strategies & learning tasks – What you & students will be doing – Diverse student needs • Instructional resources – Must include the number and text of the content standard • Learning objectives • Formal & informal assessments (includes types of assessment & what is being assessed) • Instructional strategies & learning tasks – What you & students will be doing – Diverse student needs • Instructional resources Lesson Plans History/Social Studies Physical Education • State-adopted student academic content and/or Common Core • State-adopted student academic standards and/or AAHPERD/NASPE Standards – Must include the number and text of the content standard • Learning objectives for content standards • Formal & informal assessments (includes types of assessment & what is being assessed) • Instructional strategies & learning tasks – What you & students will be doing – Diverse student needs • Instructional resources – Must include the number and text of the content standard • Learning objectives for content standards across all domains • Formal & informal assessments (includes types of assessment & what is being assessed along with evaluative criteria) • Instructional strategies & learning tasks – What you & students will be doing – Diverse student needs • Instructional resources Advice on Lesson Plans Requirements • On your lesson plan format/template place space for all the key requirements for lesson plans – Content Standards and/or Common Core – Learning objectives • Academic language objectives – – – – – – Instructional Strategies & Learning Task Structured Practice & Application Closure Differentiation/Planned Support Assessments Resources • Rubrics 1 & 2 are linked to lesson plans Lesson Plans Prompts • May want to include on lesson plan templates information requested in prompts that candidates must response to in commentary section – • Prompts vary slightly from subject area to subject area • There are 5 major prompts in commentary section under Planning with sub-questions listed under each prompt • No more than 9 single-spaced pages including prompts Advice on Lesson Plan Prompts • Might want to include these areas on your lesson plan template based on prompts – – Differentiation/Planned supports • whole class, group of students with similar needs, individual students, students with IEP’s or 504 plans, strategies for common errors and misunderstandings – Academic language objective(s) – Modifications/accommodations Task 1 • Along with lesson plans submit – – All assessments (pre/post assessments, checklist, rubrics, etc.) – All artifact used as part of instruction (peer assessments, exit slips, task cards, homework, etc.) • All learning tasks, assessments, and artifacts must be aligned with lesson objectives Five Planning Prompts Prompt 1 – Central Focus Elementary • Central focus & purpose of content – Standards & learning objectives address • Essential literacy strategy • Requisite skills • Reading/writing connections – How do plans build on each other to make connections or compose text (p. 14) Early Childhood • Central focus – Standards & learning objectives • Active, multimodal nature of learning • Language & literacy development (interdisciplinary) – How plans build on each other between active & multimodal nature of language & literacy development – Construct learning environment to support active & multimodal nature of language & literacy development (p.9) Five Planning Prompts (cont.) Prompt 1 – Central Focus History/Social Studies • Central focus & purpose of content – Standards & objectives • Facts & concepts • Interpretation & analysis skills • Building & supporting arguments – How plans build on each other to make connections between facts, concepts and interpretations or analyses to support arguments, etc. (p. 10) Performance Arts • Central focus & purpose – Standards and objectives • Artistic skills • Knowledge (e.g., tools, technical proficiencies, processes, elements, organizational principles) • Contextual understanding – Explain how your plans build on each other to help students in creating, performing, or responding to music/dance/theater and make connections to artistic skills, knowledge, and contextual understanding (p.10) Prompt 2 – Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching Elementary/PE/History • Describe what you know about your students in your class • Prior academic learning, experiences, & prerequisite skills related to central focus • Personal/cultural/community assets related to central focus Early Childhood • Describe what you know about the students in your class • Children’s development related to central focus – Social & emotional development – Cognitive & physical development – Language development for communication • Prior learning & prerequisite skills related to language & literacy development • Personal/cultural/community assets Prompt 2 – Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching Special Education • For each focus learner, identify 2 learning targets • Describe each focus learner’s exceptionality • List goals/benchmarks in IEP for each focus learner • List any special accommodations or modifications in learning environment, instruction, or assessments based on IEP • Describe behavior management plan Middle Childhood Science • • • Prior academic learning, prerequisite skills, and understanding of the nature of science – What do young adolescents know, what can they do, and what are they learning to do? Personal/cultural/community assets related to central focus – What do you know about your students’ everyday experiences, cultural backgrounds and practices and interests? Developmental assets related to central focus – What do you know about your students’ cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development? Strategies for Prompt 2a & b • Strategies Related to Prompt 2 – Where is the information located? – What can candidates cite to support their answers? – How can they gather information and use it to answer the prompts? – Must teach candidates to answer prompts • If it has an “and” all components must be addressed in prompt • Prior learning and prerequisite skills are key – Rubric 3 is used for Prompt 2 Supporting Children/Students Prompt 3 Elementary – Literacy Learning Use principles from research/devel. theory • Explain how your understanding of students’ prior learning & community assets guided your choice or adaptation of learning tasks & materials • Describe & justify why your instructional strategies & planned supports are appropriate for whole class and students with similar needs. • Describe common developmental approximations or common misconceptions in literacy and how you will address them. Early Childhood – Use principles from research/devel. theory • Explain how your understanding of children’s development, prior learning, & community assets guide your choice or adaptations of learning tasks & materials • Describe and justify why your instructional strategies & planned supports are appropriate for whole class and students with similar needs. • Describe common developmental approximations or misunderstandings and how you plan to address them. Task 1: Planning Commentary Prompt 3 • Supporting Students’ Learning a. How would your information from Prompt 2 determine teaching strategies used in the unit of instruction? • How does your understanding of prior learning, experiences, and community/cultural assets guide your choice or adaptation of learning tasks and materials/ equipment? Task 1: Planning Commentary Prompt 3 • Describe and justify why your instructional strategies and planned supports are appropriate for the whole class and students with similar needs – – Good place for research and theory to be applied –Must match what is found on lesson plans –Differentiation of instruction or accommodations from lesson plans Task 1: Prompt 3C – Planning Commentary • Describe common student errors or misunderstandings within your central focus and how you address them. – This is specific to their central focus – Could be based on pre-assessment(s) – Knowledge of age group • Rubric 3 Prompt 4 - Elementary • Supporting Literacy Development through Language – Identify one language function essential for students to learn the literacy strategy within the central focus. • key words related to function – analyze, argue, categorize, compare/contrast, describe, explain, interpret, predict, question, retell, summarize – Identify key learning tasks that provide students opportunities to practice using the language. – Additional language demands • vocabulary or key phrases • Plus on e of the following: Syntax or Discourse – Language Supports • Describe instructional supports (from lesson plans) that help students understand and use the language function and the additional language support. Prompt 4 – History/Social Studies through Language • Language Demand – Identify one language function essential for students to learn content (analyze, compare/contrast, construct, describe, evaluate, examine, identify, interpret, justify, locate, etc.) • Identify key learning tasks (lesson day/number) that provide students with the opportunity to use the language function. • Additional Language Demand (written or oral) – Vocabulary or key phrases – Syntax or discourse (at least one of the two) • Language Supports – Describe the instructional supports (from lesson plans) help students understand and use the language function and additional language demands. Language Demands • Both form and function must be included in lesson plans with learning experiences tied to language demands • Use the chart provided in handbook to define objectives with learning experiences – if summarize is in the objective – learning task and assessment should require students to summarize • Rubric 4 Prompt 5 – Monitoring Student Learning Elementary Early Childhood • Reference assessments in this section • Reference assessments in this section – – Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence that students can use the literacy strategy and requisite skills to comprehend or compose text. – Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows students with specific needs to demonstrate their learning. – Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence of the active, multimodal nature of young children learning of language and literacy. – Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows students with specific needs to demonstrate their learning. Prompt 5 Secondary English – Language Arts Visual Arts • Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence of how students’ abilities to comprehend, construct meaning from, interpret, and/or respond to complex text throughout the learning segment. • Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence of students’ abilities to create and respond to visual arts concepts incorporating form and structure, production, art context, and personal perspective throughout the learning segment. • Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows students with specific needs to demonstrate their learning. • Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows students with specific needs to demonstrate their learning. Assessments • All assessments should be attached to lesson plans – Informal, formal, formative, pre/post assessments • Should generate data that can support conclusions reached in Task 3 • Provide documentation of students knowledge and use of academic language specific to content area • Include any assessment adaptations that need to be made based on the chart completed under context • Rubric 5 is specific to Prompt 5 Task 1 – Finished! • Candidates have 9 pages including the prompts for Task 1 • This is the most essential part of the process – Provides the groundwork for completion of Tasks 2 and 3 – Provides evidence for Task 2 and 3 – Takes the longest to complete, candidates need the most guidance on this task, and these are the tasks that must be backward mapped into the program ACADEMIC LANUGAGE • Definition of academic language – glossary has a definition of academic language along with discourse, language demands, language function, syntax, and vocabulary. • Must address both form and function of language in content area • Language function is directly related to the active verb in the academic language objective(s). References Specific to Academic Language • Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA. • O’Hara, S., Pritchard, R., & Zwiers, J. (2012). Identifying academic language demands in support of the common core standards. ASCD Express, 7(17). Retrieved from: • http://www.ascd/org/ascd-express/vol7/717ohara.aspx. ACADEMIC LANGUAGE • Verbs that dictate the function are such words that define behaviors such as analyze, contrast, describe, create, interpret, sequence, evaluates, or signals. • Verbs that do not usual determine language function are such words as shows, list, identify, recall, knows, labels, or selects. • Candidates must document the learning task(s) specific to academic language in their lesson plan. Verbs for Academic Language • Each content area has a list of verbs to be used in the subject area in a chart • Objective for academic language should have the verb along with a learning tasks specific to the verb in the objective What is not a “3” in Academic Language • Simply reviewing vocabulary words – Candidates use the words during instruction – Candidates checks for understanding throughout the class where individual students provide answers – Candidates have all students “show” the meaning of the word – Candidates have “words of the week” or a “vocabulary” wall Functions of Academic Language • Three large functions – Describe complexity: Use language to describe or explain complex ideas – Higher-order thinking: from knowledge to comprehension to application to analysis to synthesis to evaluation. – Abstractions: language to describe abstract concepts. What Worked for Winthrop Candidates • Word Collage – Candidate had students at the end of each class posted a word or phrase they used during class related to the content area. Some days this involved posting synonyms for vocabulary words taught in class or antonyms. Students demonstrate they understood the terms and could use the terms in multiple ways. One day he had them use the term outside of the use in physical education. Task 2: Instructing & Engaging Students in Learning History/Social Studies • • • • • • Challenging learning tasks which candidates and learners are actively engaged. Two video clips (no more than 10 minutes) each Clip 1 = illustrate what candidate did to help students critically evaluate, interpretations, defend arguments, etc. Clip 2 = how the candidate supported as they form interpretations or analyzes and used evidence. Can be whole class or targeted group within class Option – evidence for language use can be provided by clip. Physical Education • Including instruction & students implementing instruction • 1 or 2 clips (not to exceed 20 minutes) – Active monitoring – At least one transition • Three focus students • Option – evidence for language use can be provided by clip. Task 2: Instructing & Engaging Students in Learning Elementary Early Childhood • Evidence for these prompts are on the video clips or in commentary that is supported by video clips • Demonstrate how students are engaged in developmentally appropriate practices – Candidate submits one or two clips (total not to exceed 15 minutes) – Video clip(s)cannot be edited once begun – Can feature whole class or targeted group of students – Optional – language use can be either video clips or student work sample – Whole child in interdisciplinary language & literacy – Active, multimodal nature – 2 clips (total not to exceed 15 minutes) – Clip 1 = whole-group interaction – Clip 2 = small-group or individual interaction – Optional – language use can be either video clips or student work sample Task 2: Instructing & Engaging Students Prompts 1. Identify lesson plan(s) by number used in video clips 2. Promoting a positive learning environment a. Respect and rapport with students b. Responsiveness to children with varied needs c. Easiest to score 3. Use Rubric 6 to evaluate the next clip Task 2: Instructing & Engaging Students Elementary • Prompt 3 – Engaging students in learning – Refer to specific examples from the clips – Explain how your instruction engaged students in literacy strategy and requisite skills – Describe how your instruction linked prior academic learning & community assets. – Rubrics 7 & 8 Special Education • Prompt 4 – Engaging & Motivating the Focus Learner)s) – Refer to specific examples from the clips – Explain how your strategies engaged and motivated each focus learner to develop and apply the targeted knowledge and skills. – Describe how your instruction linked each focus learner’s prior learning and personal, family, cultural, and/or community assets with new learning. – Rubric 7 Task 2: Instructing & Engaging Students Elementary Literacy • Prompt 4 – Deepening Learning – How you elicited responses to promote thinking & applying literacy strategies using requisite skills to comprehend or compose text – How you supported students to apply the literacy strategy in a meaning-based context. – Rubrics 7 & 8 Middle School Mathematics • Prompt 4 – Deepening Learning – Explain how you elicited and responded to student responses to promote thinking and develop conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, AND mathematical reasoning and/or problem solving – Explain how you used representations to support adolescents’ understanding and use of mathematical concepts and procedures Clip of Elementary Literacy Lesson • Take out Rubrics 7, 8, & 9 for Elementary Literacy • Watch the clip and score the clip based on the criteria on the rubric • Clip is 9 minutes long Task 2: Instructing & Engaging Students • Prompt 5 – Analyzing Teaching – How did your instruction support learning for whole class and students who need greater support? – What changes would you make to your instruction? – Why do you think these changes would improve student learning? – Rubrics 9 & 10 Task 3 Assessment 3 – What I need to do? Elementary • Assessment(s) submitted during planning task • Used with entire class • Must provide evidence for individual students – Essential literacy strategy – Requisite skills • Define & Submit evaluation criteria • Analyze work (quantitative & qualitative) • Select 3 work samples that represent a pattern of learning ( at least one with an IEP, ELL, etc.) Early Childhood • Assessment(s) submitted during planning task • Used with entire class • Must provide evidence for individual students – Language & literacy – Active nature of learning • Define & Submit evaluation criteria • Analyze work (quantitative & qualitative) • Two focus students (at least one with an IEP, ELL, etc.) Task 3 – What I need to do? Cont. Elementary • Document feedback on three focus students (clips or work sample) • Submit selected assessment with directions/prompts (attach with 2 page limit) • Evidence of students’ understanding of academic language (video clips or here) Early Childhood • Three sources of evidence – Video or audio clips (7 minute limit – provide time stamps) – Observation notes (no more than 2 pages per focus child) – Work sample per focus child • Document feedback (focus students) on common assessment • Submit selected assessment with directions/prompts (attach with 2 page limit) • Evidence of students’ understanding of academic language (video clips or here) Task 3: Assessment Commentary • 1. Analyzing Student Learning – a. Identify specific language/literacy standards/objectives (EC – varies across subject area) – b. Provide directions/prompts for assessment and evaluative criteria you are using to analyze student learning – c. Provide graphic or narrative summary of student learning based on evaluation criteria and documented student data – EC – Use summary above and 3 sources of evidence for the 2 focus students relative to language and literacy development – d. Analyze patterns of learning for whole class or differences for groups or individual learners – e. Use documented student data for 3 focus student work samples. Task 3: Assessment Commentary • 2. Feedback to Guide Further Learning – a. In what form did you submit your feedback for the focus students • • • • Rubrics with written feedback Text of verbal feedback given Samples of written feedback to parents Other forms – b. Explain how feedback provided to focus students addresses their individual strengths and needs relative to standards/objectives – c. How will you support students to apply feedback to guide improvement? Task 3: Assessment Commentary • 3. Evidence of Language Understanding: You may provide evidence through video clip(s) or work samples • Explain to the extent to which students were able to use language (selected function, vocabulary, and additional identified demands) to develop content understanding. Task 3: Assessment Commentary • 4. Using Assessment to Inform Instruction – a. Based on your analysis of student learning presented in prompts 1c-e, describe next steps for instruction • Whole class • Focus students – b. Explain how next steps follow your analysis of students’ learning. Support your explanation with principles from research and/or theory. – 9 pages single space with prompts for assessment section. Sample Worksheet Sample Writing Rubric Formative Assessment Lessons Learned • Must backward map tasks to be included in TPA before student teaching semester • Have them complete a TPA in a methods course for one class so extensive feedback can be given on the various tasks • Key tasks (lesson planning, assessment development, and academic language) must be taught early in the program and reinforced throughout the program Is it worth it? • I saw a tremendous improvement in how my candidates reflected on their teaching and planned for their teaching. • This process impacted their teaching more effectively then completing the Internship Work Sample previously required. • Candidates were completely engaged in the process and had terrific discussions about teaching, assessing, and student engagement. Would I do it again? • Yes! Questions?