Chapter 2

Report
Chapter 2
Computer Hardware
Computer Concepts 2012
2 Chapter Contents
 Section A: Personal Computer Basics
 Section B: Microprocessors and Memory
 Section C: Storage Devices
 Section D: Input and Output Devices
 Section E: Hardware Security
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
2
2 FastPoll True/False Questions
Answer A for True and B for False
 020100 A netbook is a scaled-down version of a
standard notebook computer.
 020200 Small business computers have better sound
and graphics capabilities than home or game
computers.
 020300 PCs, Macs, and Linux are three computer
platforms.
 020400 Today’s Macs can be configured to run
Windows.
 020500 Pentium, Core, Atom, and Athlon are types of
microprocessors.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
3
2 FastPoll True/False Questions
Answer A for True and B for False
020600 Today’s computers typically process 8 bits
at a time.
020700 Serial processing is when a processor
begins executing one instruction before it completes
the previous instruction.
020800 In RAM microscopic electronic parts called
capacitors hold the bits that represent data.
020900 ROM is a type of memory that holds the
computer’s startup routine.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
4
2 FastPoll True/False Questions
Answer A for True and B for False
021000 Hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid
state drives are random access devices.
021100 CD-RWs allow you to record data, but data
cannot be changed once it is recorded.
021200 VGA, SVGA, and WUXGA are examples of
screen resolutions.
021300 A surge strip allows you to use your
desktop computer during a power outage.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
5
2
SECTION
A
Personal Computer Basics
 Personal Computer Systems
 Desktop and Portable Computers
 Home, Game, and Small Business Systems
 Buying Computer System Components
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
6
2 Question
 022100 In the interest of being ecological, many consumers
consider upgrading their computers instead of disposing of
them and buying a new one. Which one of the following
upgrades is best left to professional technicians?
– A. Replacing the microprocessor with a newer model
– B. Adding an external hard drive for backup
– C. Swapping out a graphics card for a more powerful one
– D. Adding RAM
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
7
2 Personal Computer Systems
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
8
2 Desktop and Portable Computers
 The term form factor refers
to the size and dimensions
of a component, such as a
system board or system
unit
 A desktop computer fits on
a desk and runs on power
from an electrical wall outlet
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
9
2 Desktop and Portable Computers
 A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal
computer
 A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a
small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a
clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard
 A netbook offers even more portability than a standard
computer
 A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a
touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or
drawing pad
– Slate tablet
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
10
2 Desktop and Portable Computers
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
11
2 Home, Game,
and Small Business Systems
 A home computer system offers a computer configuration
designed to accommodate consumers who use computers
for personal tasks
 Some of the most cutting-edge computers are designed for
gaming
 Computers marketed for small business applications tend to
be middle-of-the-line models pared down to essentials
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
12
2 Buying Computer
System Components
 Browse through computer magazines and online computer
stores to get a general idea of features and prices
 Decide on a budget and stick to it
 Make a list of the ways you plan to use your computer
 Select a platform
 Decide on a form factor
 Select peripherals, software, and accessories
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
13
2 Buying Computer
System Components
 Instead of buying a new computer, you might consider
upgrading
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
14
2
SECTION
B
Microprocessors and Memory
 Microprocessor Basics
 Today’s Microprocessors
 Random Access Memory
 Read-only Memory
 EEPROM
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
15
2 Question
 022200 Some computers are suitable for e-mail, word
processing, and similar low-key operations, whereas other
computers have the power to keep up while you play
complex action games, edit high-resolution videos, and
prepare multi-track sound recordings. Which of the following
computers is the most powerful?
– A. Intel Core 2 Quad processor; 4 GB RAM
– B. AMD Phenom Quad core processor; 3 GB RAM
– C. Intel Core 2 Quad processor; 2 GB RAM
– D. Intel Atom processor; 4 GB RAM
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
16
2 Microprocessor Basics
 A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to
process instructions
– Usually the most
expensive component
of a computer
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
17
2 Microprocessor Basics
 Microprocessor clock
– Megahertz
– Gigahertz
 Multicore processor
 Front side bus
 Cache
– Level 1 cache (L1)
– Level 2 cache (L2)
– Level 3 cache (L3)
 Word size
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
18
2 Microprocessor Basics
 CISC vs. RISC technology
 Serial processing
– Pipelining
 Parallel processing
 Benchmarks
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
19
2 Today’s Microprocessors
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
20
2 Random Access Memory
 RAM (random access memory) is a temporary holding area
for data, application program instructions, and the operating
system
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
21
2 Random Access Memory
 Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data
 Most RAM is volatile
– Requires electrical power to hold data
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
22
2 Random Access Memory
 RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes
 Personal computers typically feature between 2 GB and 8
GB of RAM
 If a program exceeds its allocated space, the operating
system uses an area of the hard disk, called virtual memory,
to store parts of programs or data files until they are needed
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
23
2 Random Access Memory
 SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive
– DDR, DDR2, or DDR3
 RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds or
megahertz
– Lower nanosecond ratings are better
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
24
2 Read-Only Memory
 ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s
startup routine
– Permanent and non-volatile
 The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard
disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
25
2 EEPROM
 Electrically Erasable
Programmable Read-Only
Memory
 Replaces CMOS
technology
 Requires no power to hold
data
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
26
2
SECTION
C
Storage Devices
 Storage Basics
 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology
 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology
 Solid State Storage
 Storage Wrap-up
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
27
2 Question
 022300 Storage devices have varying levels of versatility,
durability, speed, and capacity. For a student who owns a
computer, but sometimes needs to use computers in the
school lab, which storage device is most versatile?
– A. Hard disk drive
– B. CD-R
– C. Solid state drive
– D. USB flash drive
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
28
2 Storage Basics
 A storage medium contains data
 A storage device records and
retrieves data from a storage
medium
– Data gets copied from a
storage device into RAM,
where it waits to be
processed
– Processed data is held
temporarily in RAM before it
is copied to a storage
medium
 Vertical vs. horizontal storage
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
29
2 Magnetic Disk and
Tape Technology
 Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic
particles on the disk or tape surface
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
30
2 Magnetic Disk and
Tape Technology
Hard disk platters and
read-write heads are
sealed inside the drive
case or cartridge to
screen out dust and
other contaminants.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
31
2 Magnetic Disk and
Tape Technology
 A hard disk controller positions the disk, locates data, and
interfaces with the components of the system board
– SATA
– Ultra ATA
– EIDE
– SCSI
 Not as durable as many other
storage technologies
– Head crash
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
32
2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray
Technology
 Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark
spots on the disk surface
– CD, DVD, and Blu-ray storage technologies
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
33
2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray
Technology
 Today’s DVD drives typically have 24X speeds for a data
transfer rate of 3600 KBps
 Three categories of
optical technologies
– Read-only (ROM)
– Recordable (R)
– Rewritable (RW)
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
34
2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray
Technology
 CD-DA
 DVD-Video
 CD-ROM
 DVD-ROM
 CD-R
 DVD+R or DVD-R
 CD-RW
 DVD+RW or DVD-RW
 BD-ROM, BD-R, and BD-RE
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
35
2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray
Technology
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
36
2 Solid State Storage
 Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable,
rewritable circuitry
 Non-volatile
 Card reader may be required
to read data on solid state
storage
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
37
2 Solid State Storage
 A USB flash drive is a
portable storage device that
plugs directly into a
computer’s system unit
using a built-in connector
 Files stored on a USB flash
drive can be opened,
edited, deleted, and run just
as though those files were
on magnetic or optical
media
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
38
2 Storage Wrap-up
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
39
2 Storage Wrap-up
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
40
2
SECTION
D
Input and Output Devices
 Basic Input Devices
 Display Devices
 Printers
 Installing Peripheral Devices
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
41
2 Question
 022400 Computer owners usually want to add various
peripheral devices to their computers. Suppose you have a
notebook computer and you want to add an external hard
drive, but you’ve run out of USB ports. What can you do?
– A. Use the HDMI port instead.
– B. Plug directly into the expansion bus.
– C. Swap in a USB hub for one of the currently connected
peripherals.
– D. Use an Ethernet-to-USB converter.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
42
2 Basic Input Devices
 Keyboard
 Pointing device
– Mice
– Trackball
– Joystick
– Trackpad
 Touch
screen
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
43
2 Display Devices
 An LCD display produces
an image by filtering light
through a layer of liquid
crystal cells
 Gradually, CCFL
backlighting technology is
being replaced by lowpower light-emitting diodes
(LEDs)
– LED display
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
44
2 Display Devices
 Screen size
 Dot pitch
 Viewing angle width
 Response rate
 Color depth
 Screen resolution
– VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA,
UXGA, WUXGA, and WQXGA
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
45
2 Display Devices
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
46
2 Display Devices
 Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an
image on the screen
– Integrated graphics
– Graphics card
– Graphics processing
unit (GPU)
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
47
2 Printers
 An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink
onto paper
 A laser printer works like a photocopier
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
48
2 Printers
Laser printers
electrostatically
collect toner on a
drum, then the toner is
transferred onto paper.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
49
2 Printers
 Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by
using a grid of fine wires
– The wires strike a ribbon and the paper
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
50
2 Printers
 Printer features
– Resolution
– Print speed
– Duty cycle
– Operating costs
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
– Duplex capability
– Memory
– Networkability
51
2 Installing Peripheral Devices
 The data bus moves data between RAM and the microprocessor
 The segment of the data bus to which peripheral devices connect is
called the expansion bus
 An expansion slot is a long, narrow socket on the system board into
which you can plug an expansion card
 Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer
additional capabilities
– Expansion port
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
52
2 Installing Peripheral Devices
An expansion card simply
slides into an expansion
slot. Before you install an
expansion card, make sure
you unplug the computer
and ground yourself—
that’s technical jargon
for releasing static
electricity by using a
special grounding
wristband or by touching
both hands to a metal
object.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
53
2 Installing Peripheral Devices
 An expansion port passes data in
and out of a computer or peripheral
device
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
54
2 Installing Peripheral Devices
 Most peripherals connect to an external USB port
 You can easily add USB ports to your computer by using a
USB hub
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
55
2 Installing Peripheral Devices
 Other kinds of ports
 Plug and Play automatically configures your computer to
accommodate new peripheral devices you add
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
56
2
SECTION
E
Hardware Security
 Anti-theft Devices
 Surge Protection and Battery Backup
 Basic Maintenance
 Troubleshooting and Repair
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
57
2 Question
 022500 When you treat your computer carefully and perform
basic maintenance, you can avoid many hardware problems,
However, if you encounter the blue screen of death, what
has gone wrong?
– A. The operating system has encountered an error from
which it cannot recover.
– B. Your computer has contracted a virus.
– C. Your hard disk is full.
– D. Your display device has malfunctioned.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
58
2 Anti-Theft Devices
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
59
2 Surge Protection
and Battery Backup
 A power surge is a sudden increase in electrical energy,
affecting the current that flows to electrical outlets
 A surge strip is a device that contains electrical outlets
protected by circuitry that blocks surges
 A UPS is a device that not only provides surge protection,
but also furnishes your computer with battery backup power
during a power outage
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
60
2 Surge Protection
and Battery Backup
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
61
2 Basic Maintenance
 Computer component failures can be caused by
manufacturing defects and other circumstances beyond your
control
 Keep the keyboard clean
 Clean your computer screen on a regular basis
 Keep the area clean around your computer
 Make sure fans are free of dust
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
62
2 Basic Maintenance
Carefully use a cotton
swab and a can of
compressed air or a
vacuum cleaner to
remove dust and debris
from your keyboard.
Sticky liquids are
difficult to remove. That
can of pop? Better to
keep it away from your
keyboard.
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
63
2 Troubleshooting and Repair
 There are several telltale signs that your computer is in
trouble
– Failure to power up
– Loud beep
– Blank screens and/or error messages
– Blue screen of death
 Windows troubleshooter
 Safe Mode
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
64
2 Troubleshooting and Repair
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
65
2 What Do You Think?
023100 Have you ever thrown away an old
computer or other electronic device?
– A. Yes
B. No
C. Not sure
 203200 Are you aware of any options for recycling
electronic equipment in your local area?
– A. Yes
B. No
C. Not sure
023300 Would it be fair for consumers to pay a
recycling tax on any electronic equipment that they
purchase?
– A. Yes
Chapter 2: Computer Hardware
B. No
C. Not sure
66
Chapter 2 Complete
Computer Concepts 2012

similar documents