Mitigating Transfer Station Safety and Health Risks During Planning

Report
Presented by Charles Conway, KPG, Inc. and
Karl Hufnagel, R.W. Beck, Inc. An SAIC Company
What are the Health and Safety Hazards and Risks?
Accidents/Injuries
 Falls, slips and trips
 Lacerations, punctures, cuts
 Flying objects and projectiles
 Collisions (vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-pedestrian, vehicle-
building)
 Spill, splash and release of acids, caustics and toxics
 Material handling equipment moving parts
 Falling material
 Electrocution
 Heart attacks and other medical/health emergencies
What are the Health and Safety Hazards and Risks?
Fire
Explosion
Confined Space Hazards
Environmental Exposure
 Dust
 Noise
 Toxic Fumes, Exhaust Gases and Smoke
 Infectious Agents
Who are the Stakeholders?
Stakeholders With Risk Exposure
 General Public (Customers)
 Commercial Haulers (Customers)
 Visitors – Tour Groups
 Operators
 Maintenance Staff
 Supervisory Staff
 Fire and Emergency Personnel
 Agency Oversight Staff
These stakeholders represent a very
broad spectrum of understanding
and awareness of risks
The risk exposure varies widely for
these stakeholders
Who are the Stakeholders?
Stakeholders With Responsibilities
 Owner
 Operations
 Risk Management
 Engineering
 Health Department/District
 Department of Labor and Industries
 Code Officials
 Fire Officials
 Design Professionals
 Insurers
 Others?
What are the Governing Codes and Regulations?
 International Building Code (IBC)
 International Fire Code (IFC)
 National Electrical Code (NEC)
 OSHA/WISHA Regulations
 National Fire Protection Association





(NFPA) Standards
Washington Administrative Code
Public Health Ordinances
Operating Permit(s)
Owner’s Rules and Proceedures
Other?
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler
system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof
assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke barriers,
smoke venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and
eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs,
training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof
assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke barriers,
smoke venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and
eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs,
training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof
assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke barriers, smoke
venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs,
training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke
barriers, smoke venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs, training
and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke




NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
Fire alarm
Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof assemblies
Smoke control (smoke barriers, smoke
venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors
and pathways, areas of refuge,
exit illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs, training
and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof
assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke barriers,
smoke venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs,
training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof
assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke barriers,
smoke venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs,
training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
Fire alarm
Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof assemblies
Smoke control (smoke barriers, smoke
venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation




General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and
eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access to
machinery spaces, elevator cabs,
training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation - General
Fire and Smoke
 NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system
 Fire alarm
 Fire-rated wall/ceiling/roof
assemblies
 Smoke control (smoke barriers,
smoke venting)
 Egress (exits, exit corridors and
pathways, areas of refuge, exit
illumination and signage)
 Standby power generation
General Health and Safety Risks
 First Aid
 Emergency showers and eyewashes
 EMT access (site access, access
to machinery spaces, elevator
cabs, training and drills)
Risks and Mitigation – General
Seismic Hazards
 Structural design
 Securing equipment
and items posing
hazard of falling
material
 Standby power
generation
Risks and Mitigation – General
Confined Spaces
 Ventilation
 Access control
and signage
 Training
Risks and Mitigation – Environmental
Leachate Discharge
 Switchable
sanitary/storm sewer
collection system
 Tire wash
equipment
Risks and Mitigation – Environmental
Dust and Odor
 Misting systems
 Dust control
systems
Risks and Mitigation – Environmental
Dust and Odor
 Misting systems
 Dust control
systems
Risks and Mitigation – Environmental
Zinc/Heavy Metals
 Avoidance of
“exposed” exterior
galvanized surfaces
Risks and Mitigation – Site
Vehicle and pedestrian
accidents
 Separation of





commercial, transfer
and private vehicles
Minimizing crossing
traffic
Sound roadway design
with good lines of
sight
Signalization where
warranted
Well defined
pedestrian pathways
and cross walks
Clear signage
Risks and Mitigation – Site
Vehicle and pedestrian
accidents
 Separation of





commercial, transfer
and private vehicles
Minimizing crossing
traffic
Sound roadway design
with good lines of sight
Signalization where
warranted
Well defined pedestrian
pathways and cross
walks
Clear signage
Risks and Mitigation – Site
Intrusion and
trespassing
 Perimeter fencing
 Security cameras
Risks and Mitigation – Site
Emergency access
 Sufficient roadway
width and minimum
turning radii
 Queuing bypass
Risks and Mitigation – Scale Facility
Vehicle exhaust
 Ventilation with
remote air intake
source
 Exterior blowers
Risks and Mitigation – Scale Facility
Robbery/assault
 Vandal/bullet
resistant doors,
windows and glazing
Risks and Mitigation – Scale Facility
Repetitive motion
injuries
 Touch-screen
activation
 Motorized transaction
windows
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Falls
 Avoiding deep pits
 ‘Tipping wall’ design
 Stanchions and
chains
 Integral floor
warning marks
 Striping and signage
 Training and
supervision
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Falls
 Avoiding deep pits
 ‘Tipping wall’ design
 Stanchions and chains
 Integral floor warning
marks
 Striping and signage
 Training and
supervision
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Falls
 Avoiding deep pits
 ‘Tipping wall’ design
 Stanchions and chains
 Integral floor warning marks
 Striping and signage
 Training and supervision
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Falls
 Avoiding deep pits
 ‘Tipping wall’ design
 Stanchions and
chains
 Integral floor warning
marks
 Striping and signage
 Training and
supervision
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Injuries from moving
vehicles
 Tipping and receiving
floor configuration to
minimize backing
toward people
 Separation of private
vehicles from
commercial vehicles and
waste-handling
equipment.
 Good illumination
 Unobstructed lines of
sight
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Injuries from moving or projectile
waste
 Separation of waste handling from
tipping areas
 ‘Tipping wall’ design
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Falls into compactor charging
chutes
 Training and supervision
Inhalation of dust
 Adequate ventilation
 Dust containment areas
 Misting systems
Exposure to toxic chemicals
 CO and NO2 Monitoring &
Alarm
 Operational and training
measures
 Signage
 Public address provisions and
rapid evacuation procedures
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Minor injuries from
handling of waste
 Ready access to first aid
supplies/equipment
Exposure to infectious waste
 Operational and training
measures
 Signage
Exposure to noise
 Hearing protection for
operators
 Training
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Fire/smoke
 NFPA 13 compliant sprinkler







system
Limitations on height/volume
of waste and/or combustible
recyclables
Smoke barriers and vents
Well designed egress routes
Routing of emergency power
and alarm conduits
Extinguishers and water hoses
Coordination with fire
department
Exterior ‘Hot Load’ area
Risks and Mitigation – Tipping & Receiving Floors
Explosion hazard at dust collection equipment
 Air flow volume
 Intra-duct sprinkler systems
 Explosion venting at dust filtration equipment
Hazard posed to building structure/adjacent areas
by moving equipment
 Armoring and reinforcing of walls and other structures
Falls during servicing of overhead equipment,
including lights
 Minimize overhead equipment
 Use of scissor lift for servicing
Risks and Mitigation – Material Handling &
Waste Processing Areas
Hazard posed by
conveying systems
 Guards for moving
parts
 Lockout systems,
especially where
remote-control of
conveyor is in use
 Signage
Risks and Mitigation – Material Handling &
Waste Processing Areas
Potential for injury from
toppling of waste bales
 Painted lines with
stacking height
limitations
Fire hazard from
combustibles
 Painted lines with
stacking height
limitations
Risks and Mitigation – Equipment Areas
Noise
 STC rated
wall/ceiling/floors
 Sound-absorptive
panels
Electrical hazards
 NEC-required
clearances at electrical
panels
 Electrical room egress
requirements
Risks and Mitigation – Building Exterior
Falls from roofs
 Minimize roof-mounted
equipment which requires
servicing
 Parapets or warning stripes
 Fall-restraint/protection
systems
Falls during servicing of roof
gutters
 Minimizing gutter servicing
requirements
 Access for scissor lift
Falls through skylights
 Safety grilles or OSHA-rated
glazing
Risks and Mitigation – Building Exterior
Lightning strikes
 Lightning-protection
systems
Hazard to air
navigation posed by
birds
 Bird-deterrent
systems
Risks and Mitigation – Compactor Bay & Loading
Areas
Injuries from vehicle
movements
 Adequate
illumination
 Good lines of sight
 Adequate clearances
Risks and Mitigation – Compactor Bay & Loading
Areas
Fire hazard posed by
hydraulic fluid
 Emergency
equipment shut-off
 Adequate drychemical fire
extinguishers (NFPA
10 for extra-hazard
occupancy)
Risks and Mitigation – Compactor Bay & Loading
Areas
Concentration of
vehicle exhaust
 Ventilation
Risks and Mitigation – Compactor Bay & Loading
Areas
Noise
 Operational
requirement for
hearing protection
 Sound-proof break area
Exposure to toxic or
infectious agents in
leachate
 Collection of leachate
near source.
 Adequate wash-down
water
Addressing Health and Safety During Design
 Form a safety team, including members of design team, owner’s representative,
owner’s risk manager, owner’s insurance carrier (if appropriate), and local
officials
 Identify as many potential risks as possible early in the design process
 Identify stakeholders
 Develop strategies to mitigate risks
 Continue to evaluate risks throughout design process
 Make sure owner understands risks that will need to be mitigated partially or
wholly through training or operational means
 Ensure safety measures are properly commissioned and fully tested
 Where construction will occur at an operational station, ensure contractor is
fully apprised of risks and require that the contractor’s safety plan takes unique
risks into account
Charles Conway
KPG, Inc
206-315-2979
[email protected]
Karl Hufnagel
R. W. Beck, Inc.
An SAIC Company
206-695-4509
[email protected]

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