Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Chapter 5 Authors: DiClemente

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Protection Motivation
Theory (PMT)
Chapter 5
Authors: DiClemente, Salazar, Crosby
Powerpoint by: Rebecca Amantia
H571
Overview

Introduction of PMT

History

Components of PMT

Example

Applied in Public Health
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Two Public Health examples
PMT Introduction
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Communication Theory
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To better understand the specific cognitive process underlying how
fear appeals motivate people to change their behavior.
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Perceived threat + Cognitive processes.


Analysis of rewards and costs for engaging in either a maladaptive behavior or
adaptive response.
Designing messages for health awareness campaigns that utilize
fear as a motivator for positive behavior.
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Ex: Antismoking advertisements. .
History of PMT

Fear Prior


Dr. R. W. Rogers in 1975
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Fear was an emotional trigger for trial-and –error type responses in an attempt to escape
the experience of fear.
to explain the cognitive effects of fear appeals.
Lazarus & Leventhal
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Fear triggers an automatic appraisal.

Differ in Sensitivity & Vulnerability, Interactions & Reactions.
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Danger Control & Fear Control
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1st three factors of PMT: Threat Severity, Threat Vulnerability, & Response Efficacy
PMT known as today

Include self efficacy and emphasize cognitive processes, which motivates either adaptive
or maladaptive behavioral responses.
Components of PMT
The Threat Appraisal & the Coping Appraisal are in close proximity to Protection Motivation
Fear
appeal
Rewards of
Maladaptive
response
Response
Efficacy
Self-Efficacy
Severity
Vulnerability
Costs of
Adaptive
response
Threat
appraisal
Protection
Motivation
Coping
appraisal
Protection Motivation:
A mediating variable whose function is to direct protective health behavior.
THREAT APPRAISAL: Severity & Vulnerability

Assessment of the seriousness of a health threat.
Fear
appeal

Estimating Vulnerability (Probability of a negative outcome)

Severity of the negative outcome if no action is taken.
Rewards of
Maladaptive
response
Severity
Vulnerability
Threat
appraisal
Protection
Motivation
THREAT APPRAISAL: Rewards

Rewards are positive consequences for a maladaptive behavioral response.
Fear
appeal
Rewards of
Maladaptive
response
Severity
Vulnerability
Threat
appraisal
Protection
Motivation
COPING APPRAISAL: Response & Self Efficacy

Response Efficacy

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Evaluation of how effective the behavior will be in protecting the individual from
harm.
Self Efficacy

Fear
appeal
The individuals evaluation of their capacity to perform the recommended behavior.
Response
Efficacy
SelfEfficacy
Costs of
Adaptive
response
Coping
appraisal
Protection
Motivation
COPING APPRAISAL: Cost

Costs

Fear
appeal
involves physical, social, or psychological consequences for engaging in the
adaptive response.
Response
Efficacy
SelfEfficacy
Costs of
Adaptive
response
Coping
appraisal
Protection
Motivation
EXAMPLE

Health Threat: alcohol poisoning

Vulnerability: Probability of alcohol poisoning if one continues to drink too much.

Severity: Mortality or Morbidity of alcohol poisoning.
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Response Efficacy : will drinking less prevent alcohol poisoning.
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Self-Efficacy: Individuals evaluation of their ability to limit their drinks or quit.

Rewards of Maladaptive Response: Rewards of continuing to heavily drink (being
cool or popular)

Cost of Adaptive Response: Cost to drinking less (not being cool or being made fun
of)
PMT Applied

Useful to health communication
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reducing alcohol use, enhancing healthy lifestyles, enhancing
diagnostic health behaviors and preventing disease.

Utilized to discover which part of message design has the
greatest impact on message efficacy.

Successful health awareness message using fear appeal.
Example: Anti-smoking commercial
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zWB4dLYChM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eUOjSTZMIE
Thank You!

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