First Step to Success: An Intervention for Young Children with

Report
First Step to Success:
An Intervention for Young
Children with Problem Behavior
Barbara Mitchell, Ph.D.
MO SWPBS Tier 2/3 Consultant
Outcomes
By the end of this session participants will be able to…
• Explain the need for early intervention
• Describe components of the First Step to
Success program
• Determine extent to which First Step may be a
contextually appropriate intervention for staff
and students in your setting.
MO SW-PBS
Antisocial Behavior
• Consistent violation of behavioral
expectations across a range of settings
– Home
– School
– Neighborhood
– Community
(Walker et al., 1997)
MO SW-PBS
Antisocial Behavior
• Examples include
– Physical aggression
– Tantrums
– Hostile reactions to social initiations from peers
– Defiance of adult directions
– Vandalism
– Disturbing and disrupting others
– Pestering & Over-activity
(Walker et al., 1997)
MO SW-PBS
What Do We Know?
• Children who begin school with antisocial
behavior patterns are at great risk for a
number of negative long-term outcomes
– School failure & dropout
– Delinquency
– Alcohol and drug use
– Adult criminality
– Dependence on welfare system
– Higher death and injury rates
MO SW-PBS
Path to Negative Long-Term Outcomes
for At-Risk Children & Youth
What Do We Know?
• By grade 4 antisocial behavior should be
treated as a chronic condition like diabetes
(not cured, but managed)
• 50% will maintain disorder to adulthood
– Life-course persistent antisocial behavior
MO SW-PBS
What Do We Know?
• Punishment is not a solution
• Schools that use punishment alone as a
primary tool have increased rates of
– Aggression
– Vandalism
– Truancy
– Dropout
(Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1991)
MO SW-PBS
What Do We Know?
• Early intervention in school, home and
community is best hope for diverting from
path of negative outcomes
MO SW-PBS
Three Levels of Implementation
A Continuum of Support for All
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier Three
Tier Three
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• High Intensity
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• Intense, durable procedures
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier One
Tier One
• All students
• Preventive, proactive
• All settings, all students
• Preventive, proactive
MO SW-PBS
First Step to Success
Helping Young Children Overcome
Antisocial Behavior
Walker, Golly, Severson, Kavanaugh,
Stiller, & Feil, 1997
Sopris West
First Step Description
• Early intervention program designed to help
children who are at risk for developing
aggressive or antisocial behavioral patterns.
• Teaches students to
– get along with teachers and peers
– engage in schoolwork in an appropriate manner
MO SW-PBS
First Step Research
• Two studies met the IES What Works
Clearinghouse evidence standards
– Walker et al., 1998 & Walker et al., 2009
• Evidence indicates First Step has
– Positive effects on externalizing behaviors
– Potentially positive effects on internalizing
behavior, social outcomes, and academic
performance behaviors (e.g., academic engaged
time)
MO SW-PBS
Implementation Guidelines
• Tier 2 intervention, targets students who
already show signs of risk and/or maladaptive
behavior
– Coach works with one child at a time in a
classroom, but in the same fashion for all students
who participate
• Enhanced version for students with intensive
needs is being developed
MO SW-PBS
Implementation Guidelines
• Appropriate for students PreK – 3
– Preschool Kit
– K-3 Kit
• Role of Coach is critical!
– Meant to be a positive support
• Careful monitoring and follow-up required
– Brief “booster shots” recommended
MO SW-PBS
First Step Materials
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Implementation Guide
homeBase Coach Guide
Timer and stopwatch
Overview video
Lanyard to attach
Green/Red cards
Small Green/Red cards
to take home
Video tape
MO SW-PBS
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•
•
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Large Green/Red point
cards for CLASS
homeBase Parent
Handbooks
homeBase 3 parent bags
homeBase Card Packs
–
•
Parent help and activity
cards
Stickers, markers, pen,
paper
First Step Roles & Responsibilities
Coach
- Introduces
program
- Provides
materials
- Teaches
behavior
- Monitors
progress
- Phones parent
- Leads
homeBase
MO SW-PBS
Teacher
- Teaches
acceptable
behavior
Parents
Student
- Provides
- Agrees to
encouragement participate
and recognition - Brings home
- Provides
- Participates in green/red card
encouragement HomeBase
- Joins in
and recognition meetings
HomeBase
- Monitors
student
behavior
- Practices skill
building from
HomeBase
activities
First Step Components
• Includes three interconnected modules:
– First Step Screening
• Identifies problems of antisocial behavior
– CLASS
• Contingencies for Learning Academic and Social Skills
• School intervention
– homeBase
• Home intervention
• Leverages key social agents
– Teacher and peers; Parents/Caregivers; Coach
MO SW-PBS
Which Children Are At Risk?
Externalizing Behaviors
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Aggression to others or things
Hyperactivity
Non-compliance
Disruptive
Arguing
Defiance
Stealing
Not following directions
Calling out
MO SW-PBS
Which Children Are At Risk?
Internalizing Behaviors
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Exhibits unusual sadness
Sleeps a lot
Is teased or bullied by peers
Does not participate in games
Very shy or timid
Acts fearful
Does not stand up for self
Withdrawn
Avoids social interactions
MO SW-PBS
Early Detection - Screen
• Designed to identify children with elevated
risk for developing antisocial behavior
patterns
– Screening options
1. Teacher nominations and rankings
2. Teacher nomination and ranking followed by teacher
ratings using a 9-item scale
3. Teacher nomination and rankings; Teacher and parent
ratings; and direct observations (Early Screening
Project; ESP)
MO SW-PBS
Nomination & Rank Order - Screen
Teacher Rating Scale - Screen
School Intervention - CLASS
Classroom
Teacher
First Step Coach
Parents/Caregiver
First
Step
Student
MO SW-PBS
School Intervention - CLASS
• Provided within a regular classroom context
• Requires a minimum of 30 program days for
successful completion
– Each program day has performance criterion that
must be met before proceeding to next day of
program
– If criterion isn’t met the program day is repeated
(recycled)
MO SW-PBS
General Procedures - CLASS
• Large green/red card is used to cue student
– Green = keep doing what you’re doing
– Red = stop; think about what you need to do
• Feedback and points are awarded for specified
intervals (stopwatch)
– 80% or more of opportunities scored “green” gets
class reward
– e.g., 5 min extra recess, popcorn
MO SW-PBS
General Procedures - CLASS
• Coach/Teacher contacts home daily to report
on student progress
• Child takes green/red card with recorded
score home each night
• Parent rewards child or provides
encouragement for meeting goal the next day;
signs card and returns it to school
MO SW-PBS
Procedures Coach Phase - CLASS
Days 15
Coach
Teacher
Parents
-Implements
program with
child in classroom
-Provides verbal
praise
-Check for green/red
card each day
-Announces
incentive to class
-Gives praise and
incentive for making
daily points
-Communicates
with parents daily
-Completes
green/red card;
determines if
goal is met
MO SW-PBS
-Supports delivery
of incentive
-Supports
green/red card
going home
-Remains neutral if
child doesn’t make
daily points
-Signs card and
returns it to school.
Procedures Teacher Phase - CLASS
Days 630
Coach
Teacher
Parents
-Implements
weekly
homeBase
program;
6 sessions
-Takes over daily
intervention
implementation
-Participates in
weekly homeBase
program with coach
-Records
information on
monitoring form
-Participates in daily
homeBase activities
w/ child
-Communicates
daily with parents
-Provides praise,
incentives, and
monitors green/red
card
-Provides
support and
consultation to
teacher
MO SW-PBS
Maintenance Phase - CLASS
Days
31 and
Beyond
Coach
Teacher
Parents
-Continues
homeBase program
-Works with
Coach to
maintain positive
gains
-Continues
homeBase
program
-Monitors child’s
progress
-Provides
consultation to
teacher
-Collects post
intervention data
MO SW-PBS
-Maintains
communication
with Parents
-Works with
Teacher to
maintain positive
gains
School to Home Link - homeBase
• Coach meets with family for 6 weeks
– 45-60 min per week
– Provides lessons for promoting school success
• Parents work with child
– 10-15 min per day
– Skill building and practice; positive interactions
– Parent uses help & activity cards
MO SW-PBS
School to Home Link - homeBase
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Communicating and sharing school
Cooperation
Setting Limits
Solving Problems
Making Friends
Developing Confidence
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Parent Lesson - homeBase
MO SW-PBS
Parent Help Card - homeBase
MO SW-PBS
Parent Activity Card – homeBase
MO SW-PBS
Parent Activity Card – homeBase
MO SW-PBS
First Step Components
“Although the intervention components can
stand alone and be used singly and
independently, it is highly recommended that
they be used in concert. The First Step program
has maximal impact when implemented in this
fashion.”
*Screen – CLASS - homeBase
(Walker et al., 1997, p. 3)
MO SW-PBS
Barriers to Effective Implementation
• Lack of stakeholder commitment
– Concerns about screening children
– Objections to utilizing rewards
– Parent Support
• Constraints of school/class schedules
– Needs to occur daily
• Limited resources
– Coach, Time, Materials
– 50-60 hours over 3 months; $500 per student
MO SW-PBS
Resources
• Missouri PBIS Website, Session 8B
http://pbismissouri.org/archives/3483
– Intervention Overview
– Coach, Teacher, and Parent Roles
*Documents provide a written description of the
First Step intervention and key implementation
responsibilities.
MO SW-PBS
Resources
• First Step to Success Information
– http://www.firststeptosuccess.org
• What Works Clearinghouse
– http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/interventionreport.aspx?
sid=179
• OSEP Technical Assistance Center of PBIS
– http://www.pbis.org/research/secondary/first_steps_
to_success.aspx
MO SW-PBS
Resources
• Purchase First Step to Success Materials
– Preschool Edition
• Starter Kit - $178
• Re-supply - $60
– School-Age Edition
• Starter Kit - $204
• Re-supply - $50
• http://store.cambiumlearning.com/first-stepto-success/
MO SW-PBS
Resources
• First Step to Success Training Sessions
– Two-day workshop (fall and spring)
– October 17 or 30
– April 23 or 24
– Jefferson City
• Register through South Central & Heart of
Missouri RPDC
MO SW-PBS
Contact Information
• RPDC Regional and/or Tier 2/3 SWPBS
Consultant
• Barb Mitchell, Tier 2/3 SWPBS Consultant
– [email protected]
MO SW-PBS

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