Help with Paraphrasing - School of Social Work

Report
How to paraphrase a published
author’s work in your own
words.



Understand that paraphrasing is very difficult
and should not feel easy.
As your readings become more specialized and
complex, the harder it is to put key class
concepts in your own words. Give yourself ample
time to read and understand your essay sources
and class materials.
Time-management and persistence is key:
The more time you spend reading and thinking
about the concepts the more confident you will
be in your ability to put them in your own words.
 Recognize
the difference between a quote and
a paraphrase.
• A quote is a section of text lifted directly word
for word from its original source.
• A paraphrase is a re-wording of a section of text
in your own voice and writing style.
• Whether paraphrasing or quoting, you must
acknowledge the original text with a citation.
Quote: “People who eat red meat tend to have
more health problems later in life than
vegetarians” (Smith, 2011, p.23).
Paraphrase: Smith (2011) argues that
vegetarians enjoy greater health as they
age than meat eaters (p. 23).
 Notice
that both have citations.
Quoting is often discouraged in the social
sciences, which means that when you are using
sources, you should paraphrase more often than
you quote.
Quote when (1) the language is so technical that
your paraphrase would change the meaning of
the original, or (2) you want to emphasize the
author’s exact words, so that you can make some
larger comment about the specifics.






Spend plenty of time reading and thinking about the sources
you will use in the essay.
If you don’t understand, discuss the ideas with your
professor or a classmate.
Jot down the page numbers and general ideas of the
sections you know you will use. In your notes, write “author’s
idea” to avoid plagiarism.
Within a passage you intend to paraphrase, highlight words
or phrases you do not understand. Define the words you do
not know.
Just having a vague sense is not enough. You need to
understand every word and every concept within the
passage.
If you can explain the passage aloud to yourself or someone
else, you are ready to write it.
 While
proofreading your paraphrase, resist
the urge to give up because you think the
author “just sounds better” than you, push
through the frustration and keep trying.
 A clumsy paraphrase, but one that captures
the main idea, is better than a paraphrase
that sounds good because it adheres too
closely to the original.
 Use the thesaurus sparingly.
 Paraphrasing gets easier with practice.
 Step
1: Before you begin to even write the
paraphrase, read the original several
times.
 Step 2: Before writing, say the main ideas
to yourself out loud or explain them to a
friend. Being able to talk about the idea or
repeat it in your own words will help you
articulate it in your writing.
 Step 3: Jot down your ideas as you speak
without looking at the text.
 Step
4: Put the original away. Do not look at
the original as you write.
 Step
5: Write the first draft of the paraphrase,
in your own sentence structure and wording.
Do not look at the original as you write.
This prevents you from substituting word for
word, or copying the original’s sentence
structure. Try to complete the entire
paraphrase without looking.

Step 6: Read the paraphrase checking for these mistakes, while
referencing the original:
 Are there phrases or words copied from the original?
 Check for word for word substitutions. Make sure you
did not rely on the computer’s thesaurus to write the
entire passage.
 Have you faithfully repeated the main ideas of the
original? Do the sentences make sense?
 Are your sentence structures different than the
original?
 Does the paraphrase sound like you wrote it?
 Does it sound too close to the published author’s voice?
If a few of these questions bring up red flags, it might
mean that you do not understand the concepts fully.
That is okay and part of the comprehension process.
Go back to the original, read it, digest and try again.
Try until you really can rewrite the author’s ideas
without looking at the original.


Step 7: Once you feel satisfied with your work,
make sure the paraphrase is cited correctly. Do
you have either a signal phrase, such as “Smith
(2011) states…”(p.9) or a parenthetical citation
(Smith, 2011, p.9)? If you do not cite, your
professor will think you have plagiarized.
Step 9: Make sure that the paraphrase relates to
the topic sentence of the paragraph. Does your
paraphrase relate to the ideas within the section
or paragraph? Have a writer tutor or a peer read
your essay to make sure the paraphrase fits with
the other parts of your essay.
 Original: With the suspension stiffened by 47 percent over the
Echo, the Toyota Yaris feels buttoned-down and, dare we say, fun on curvy
roads. The suspension design is nothing earth-shattering-tried-and-true
MacPherson struts up front and a torsion beam out back. But with
redesigned bushings, a single upper mounting point for the front struts
(rather than three as in the Echo), firmer calibrations and a lower center of
gravity, the Yaris doesn’t even feel related to its wallowing forebear.
Taken from Edmunds.com, “2007 Toytota Yaris Review”
 Paraphrase: According to “2007 Toyota Yaris Review,” the Yaris
has tighter suspension over the Echo and is fun to drive. The suspension is
normal for the type of car; however, it has improved bushings, struts
calibrations, and a lower center of gravity compared to the Echo (par.7).
Two typical misconceptions:
• 1) As long as I put a source in my own words I do not need
to cite. I only need to cite when I quote. WRONG!
• 2) As long as I cite, I can copy huge pieces of the original
word for word without putting quotations around them, or
noting that it is not my words. WRONG!
Other Examples…….
• Copying the source word for word and citing the source
• Using too many of the original’s phrases and words
• Rearranging the sentences without changing any of the
words or only a few words
• Less Obvious: Using the computer’s thesaurus to substitute
word for word
• Less Obvious: Copying the sentence structure of the
original


Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking
notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research]
paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should
appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to
limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while
taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed.
(1976): 46-47.
Plagiarized Paraphrase: Students often use too many direct
quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the
final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final
copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to
limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes
(Lester, 1976, pp. 46-47).
 Examples taken from the Purdue Online Writing Lab




Original: overuse direct quotation in taking notes,
Plagiarized: use too many direct quotations when they
take notes
Original: and as a result
Plagiarized: resulting
Original: final manuscript
Plagiarized: final research paper
Original: exact transcribing of source materials
Plagiarized: source material copied




Example 1: Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in
taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research]
paper.
Plagiarized Paraphrase: Students often use too many direct quotations
when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research
paper.
Desired Paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively,
failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level.
Example 2: Original: Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of
exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. (Notice the
“sentence structure flip” and that no words are similar to the original).

Plagiarized: So it is important to limit the amount of source material
copied while taking notes.

Desired Paraphrase: Since the problem usually originates during note
taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim.
Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking
notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final
[research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final
manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore,
you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of
source materials while taking notes.
Correct: In research papers students often quote excessively, failing
to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the
problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to
minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
Notice that the placement of ideas has shifted. There is no
substitution of words; instead, a complete rephrasing has
occurred.

Though this is not plagiarism, your professors with grade down for
this mistake. You must repeat all of the main ideas from the
passage. Do not write too brief a paraphrase. Ratio should be 1:1.
 Original: With the suspension stiffened by 47 percent over
the Echo, the Toyota Yaris feels buttoned-down and, dare we say, fun
on curvy roads. The suspension design is nothing earth-shatteringtried-and-true MacPherson struts up front and a torsion beam out
back. But with redesigned bushings, a single upper mounting point
for the front struts (rather than three as in the Echo), firmer
calibrations and a lower center of gravity, the Yaris doesn’t even feel
related to its wallowing forebear. Taken from Edmunds.com, “2007 Toytota
Yaris Review”

Bad Paraphrase: The Toyota Yaris is fun to drive on windy roads
because the suspension has been stiffened by 47 percent over
the Echo (“2007 Toyota Yaris Review”).

Though this is not plagiarism, again, your profs might grade
down for this mistake: Incorrectly using words or creating
nonsensical phrases by substituting word for word.
The hub of the controversies of bullying revolves
around the atmosphere of adolescents within the
academic and the emanate involvement in
extracurricular activities.
 Culture has outspokenly been modified with
each passing generation, with the spotlight
directly placed on the incredible irony depicted
throughout these changes.

 If
you have a passage from your textbook
or source that you want to cite which is
already cited, and paraphrased, by the
textbook authors, find the original if you
can.
 It is very hard to paraphrase a
paraphrase. You risk losing the meaning
of the original, like a game of telephone.




“When we summarize, we condense, in our own words, a
substantial amount of material into a short paragraph or
perhaps even into a sentence.”
“At other times, and for a variety of reasons, we may wish to
restate in detail and in our own words a certain portion of
another author’s writing. In this case, we must rely on the
process of paraphrasing.” (Emphasis mine)
“Unlike a summary, which results in a substantially shorter
textual product, a paraphrase usually results in writing of
equivalent textual length as the original, but, of course, with
a different words and, ideally, different sentence structure.”
Miguel Roig, Ph.D. Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing
practices: A guide to ethical writinghttp://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/Index.html
 Paraphrase: In research papers students often
quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material
down to a desirable level. Since the problem
usually originates during note taking, it is essential
to minimize the material recorded verbatim
(Lester, 1976, pp. 46-47).
 Summary: Students should take just a few notes in
direct quotation from sources to help minimize the
amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester,
1976, pp. 46-47).



Miller-Cochran, S.K & Rodrigo, R.L. (2009). The Wadsworth Guide to
Research. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Roig, M. (2007). Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other
questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing. Retrieved from:
http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/Index.html
The Purdue Online Writing Lab (2012). Paraphrase: Write in your Own
Words. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved from:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/

похожие документы