Organizing Students in Small Groups to Practice and Deepen

Report
Addressing Content
Elements 1-3
Part #1
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Participants will be able to understand and
apply research-based characteristics related
to Addressing Content (elements 1-3) as they
pertain to the Teacher
Observation/Evaluation Rubric.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Begins
Lessons by Reviewing
 Announces Importance of Upcoming
Information
 Students State Why Content is Important
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Learning experiences that are critical to understanding
new content should be identified and highlighted by
teachers (Nuthall, 1999).
The more involved students become in their learning,
the more likely they are to retain the content over
extended periods of time and be able to transfer
knowledge. Examples include:
previewing, chunking content for learning,
summarizing and note taking, nonlinguistic
representations, questioning, reflection, and cooperative
learning.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 To
effectively help students interact with
knowledge, teachers should continually
provide input on new content.
 When students experience content related
activities, they are more likely to accomplish
the learning goal.
 Activities might include: engaging students
in reading a section of the textbook,
listening to a lecture, observing a
demonstration, participate in a
demonstration, or watching a video.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff

Highly Effective
• Signals to students which content is critical versus noncritical,
engages students in a brief review of content that highlights the
critical information, and monitors the extent to which students can
recall and describe the previous content.

Effective
 Signals to students which content is critical versus noncritical and
engages students in a brief review of content that highlights the critical
information.

Developing
Uses strategy incorrectly or with parts missing.

Unsatisfactory
Strategy was called for but not exhibited.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Established
Routines for Student Grouping
 Organizes Students Into Small Groups
 Established Area for Small Group
Instruction
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Effectively grouping students for learning is
a very deliberate, organized, and planned
activity that provides an opportunity for
students to practice and deepen knowledge.
Without this processing, students may
initially understand the content, but may lose
the skill over time.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Considerations:




Planned or structured activities that provide opportunities for
students to reflect and apply content. (content should always be
a part of the group activity)
Organized practice or exploratory opportunities to deepen or
expand knowledge.
Reflective opportunities to apply to real world events for
students to experiment with new knowledge and solve
problems.
Engagement of students to achieve a higher level of fluency in
the new knowledge and make predictions related to their work.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Is not…..
 Unorganized, undefined groups of students who do
not have an identified purpose for the activity.

Delivery of content (unless the activity leads to
further expansion of the learning).

Unrehearsed activities.

Unrelated to content being learned.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
How do you group students for learning?
 There
is no set way to group students for learning
as long as there is a deliberate means to the
grouping.
 Students
should be grouped in a manner that most
efficiently accomplishes the outcome of the
activity.
•
•
•
•
Heterogeneously
Homogeneously
Randomly
Ability Grouping (reading or achievement levels)
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
How can I get started with grouping?
 Provide and practice routines for grouping
with your students (including behavior).
 Start small as you implement small groups into
your instruction.
 Establish and model areas for small group
instruction.
 Relate content to all group activities.
 Ensure that students know how the activity
relates to content learned.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
3 Types of Grouping
 Informal—activities that last a few minutes (i.e.
turn to your partner and ….)
 Formal—activities
designed to last for several
days or weeks (i.e. projects, writing processes)
 Base—long
term activities that usually lasts a
semester or year long.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Routine Events for Grouping:
 Students
demonstrate appropriate behavior.
 Students demonstrate grouping tasks and
routines.
 Students demonstrate understanding of grouping
expectations.
 Students can relate what they are doing and why
they are doing it.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching , 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Highly
Effective
• Organizes students into groups to practice and
deepen their knowledge and
• Monitors the extent to which students assess their
learning
Effective

•
Organizes students into groups to practice and
deepen their knowledge.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Developing/Needs
Improvement
• Uses strategy incorrectly or with parts missing
 Unsatisfactory
• Strategy was called for but not exhibited
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Organizes
 Students
Students to Practice Knowledge
Interact to Deepen Knowledge
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
“Students must have opportunities to
practice new skills and deepen their
understanding of new information.
Without this type of extended processing,
knowledge
that
students
initially
understand might fade and be lost over
time.” (Marzano, 2007)
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 “Actively
processing information is the
beginning point of learning.” (Marzano,
2007).
 Repeated exposure involving practice and
activities to deepen content knowledge
enhances the learning process.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Research theory for practicing and deepening
knowledge:
 Schema Development—gradual integration
of new knowledge, assimilating new and
old knowledge.
 Procedural Knowledge—skills, strategies,
or processes (i.e. performing long division,
reading a map, sounding out a word,
shooting a free throw)
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Development of Declarative Knowledge—reviewing
or revisiting (4 exposures are required before
students can integrate new knowledge; exposures
should be within a close timeframe). Strategies
include: revision, error analysis, similarities and
differences.
 Homework—assignments made for out of class
work to extend learning beyond the school day.
Research has shown homework positively impacts
student achievement when administered per the
research. (Marzano, 2007)

Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Highly
Effective
• Organizes students in ways that facilitate working
on cognitively complex tasks and monitors the
processes that facilitate generating and testing
hypothesis.
 Effective
• Organizes students in ways that facilitate working
on cognitively complex tasks.
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Developing/Needs
Improvement
• Uses strategy incorrectly or with parts missing
 Unsatisfactory
• Strategy was called for but not exhibited
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Group
Dynamics in 3rd Grade Math
 Teaching Difficult Lessons
 Pre-K Math Lesson
 Building Classroom Community
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Passing Notes Teaching Strategy
 Preparing Students for Exams
 Teaching Economics with Debating
 Teaching French Revolution
 Student Goal Setting
 Making Science Engaging
 Think-Pair-Share Lesson Idea
 Snowball Technique Teaching
 Build Student Vocabulary
 Analyzing Text as a Group

Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
 Elementary
• GBE Cibula 3-min (wmv)
• GBE Cibula part 2 3-min (wmv)
(Please note: wmv will not open on an iPad.)
 Middle/High
• GBH Parker Addressing Content 2-min (wmv)
• WBM Stevens ESE Addressing Content A 2-min
(wmv)
• WBM Stevens ESE Addressing Content B 2-min
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching
(wmv)
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff
Additional information may be found in The
Art and Science of Teaching, Marzano, 2007.
Good Luck!
Robert Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching, 2007
Martha Gough, PHS Reading Coach
Professional Development Center Staff

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