The principles of classification of speech sounds

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The principles of
classification of
speech sounds
Speech sounds
Vowels
Consonants
From the articulatory point of view
the main principles of the division are
as follows:
1)The presence or absence of obstruction
2)The distribution of muscular tension
3)The force of the air stream coming from
the lungs
Vowels are speech sounds based on voice.
a) There is no obstruction in their articulation
b) The muscular tension is
throughout the speech organs
c) The force of the air is weak
spread
evenly
Consonants are speech sounds in the articulation of which:
a) There is an obstruction, the removal of which causes
noise - plosion or friction.
b) The muscular tension is concentrated at the place of
obstruction
c) The force of the airstream is strong
Sonorants
occupy an intermediate position between vowels
and consonants and have features with both of
them.

Like in consonants there is an obstruction in their
articulation and the muscular tension
is concentrated at the place of obstruction.

Like vowels they are based on voice. The force of
the air stream is weak.
SEMIVOWEL - is phonetically similar to a vowel
sound but functions as the syllable boundary rather
than as the nucleus of a syllable.

For example,
/w/ and /j/ in the English words WET and YET.
The principles according to which vowels are
classified:
1.
According to the horizontal movement of the tongue
2.
According to the vertical movement of the tongue
3.
According to the position of the lips
4.
According to the degree of the muscular tension of the articulatory organs
5.
According to the force of articulation at the end of a vowel
6.
According to the stability of articulation
7.
According to the length of vowel
1. According to the horizontal movement of the tongue:

Front
Mid


Back
2. According to the vertical movement of the tongue:

High (close)


Mid
Low (open)
3. According to the position of the lips:


Rounden
Unrounded
4. According to the degree of the muscular tension of the articulatory
organs:

Tense

Lax
5. According to the force of articulation at the end of a vowel:
o
o
Free
Checked
6. According to the stability of articulation:

Monophthongs

Diphthongs

Triphthons
7. According to the length of vowel:

Long

Short
The principles according to which
consonants are classified
1.
According to the type of obstruction and the manner of
production of noise
2.
According to the active speech organs or by one active speech
organ which forms an obstruction
3.
According to the place of obstruction
4.
According to the presence or absence of voice
5.
According to the force of articulation
6.
According to the position of the soft palate
1. According to the type of obstruction and the
manner of production of noise
2. According to the active speech organ which forms
an obstruction
3. According to the place of obstruction:
dental

alveolar


post-alveolar
palatal


palato-alveolar

velar
4. According to the presence or absence of voice:


voiced
voiceless
5. According to the force of articulation:
Lenis
Fortis

6. According to the position of the soft palate:


Oral
Nasal
From the acoustic
point of view
 VOWELS
are complex periodic vibrations –
tones. They are combinations of the main
tone and overtones intensified by the
supralaryngeal cavities.
CONSONANTS are non-periodic vibrations –
noises.
 Voiceless
consonants are pure noises.
 Voiced
consonants are actually a
combination of noise and tone.
 Sonants
are predominantly sounds of tone
with admixture of noise.

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