TSumnerFinalPPPresentation

Report
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Statement of the Problem
Proposed Intervention
Literature Review
Theories
Hypothesis Statement
Method
Appendices
References
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Living in a gendered society we learn that male and female are different in
many aspects. From anatomical and psychological variations to socially imposed
stereotypes, gender related issues can and often do affect our children’s
education (Ridgeway & Correll, 2004; Risman,2004).
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There is a gross underrepresentation of women in math-related fields (Brandell
& Staberg 2008; Leaper et al., 2012; Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010).
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Socially constructed stereotypes, such as “girls are not good at math,”
unconsciously and habitually reflect in both the educator’s instructions and
parental attitudes, which in turn can reflect in children’s achievement, selfconfidence and attitude toward mathematics (Guderson, Ramirez, Levine &
Beilock, 2012; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2002; Tomasetto, Alparone, &
Cadinu, 2011; Tracy & Lane, 2006).
• In order to attempt to create a change in the
classroom, I believe that teachers should adjust
instructional strategies to minimize bias treatment and
reinforce heterogeneous, peer-learning environment.
• This proposal falls in opposition to single-sex education
practices that were legalized by the “No Child Left
Behind” act (Gurian, Stevens, & Daniels, 2009;
Herrelko, Jeffries, & Robertson, 2009).
• Gap exists in children’s academic achievement with boys
outperforming girls. Boys score above 600 on SATs 4 times more
often than girls (Ding, Song, & Richardson, 2006; Nosek et al.,
2002).
• There is a statistically insignificant gap in test results between boys
and girls (Gunderson et al, 2012; You, 2010).
• Girls outperform boys in mathematics (Geist & King, 2008).
• Girls are less likely to pursue higher mathematics or math-related careers
– gender gap in attitude (Brandell & Staberg, 2008; Steffens, Jelenec, &
Noack, 2010 James, 2007).
• Adhearing to gender stereotypes, girls associate themselves with literacy
and boys with mathematics Math = Male, Me = Female, Therefore Math ≠
Me (Leaper, Farkas, & Brown, 2012, Nosek et al, 2002; Steffens et al.,
2010).
• Girls attribute success to luck or hard work rather than talent (Steffens et
al., 2010; Stetsenko, Little, Gordeeva, Grasshof, & Oettingen, 2000).
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Mathematics gender differences are genetic (Cambell, Verna, & O’Connor-Petruso;
James, 2007, You, 2010).
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Mathematics gender differences are cognitive (Geary, Saults, Liu, & Hoard, 2000;
Moe, 2012)
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Mathematics gender differences are result of diverse socialization (Cvencek,
Meltzoff, & Greenwald, 2011; Ding et al., 2006; Gool et al., 2006; Kane & Mertz,
2011; Nosek et al., 2012; You 2010).
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Parental and teachers’ attitudes toward gender biases and math anxieties affect
children’s perceptions of their own achievements (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez and
Levine (2010); Eccels, Jackobs, and Harold, 1990; Gunderson et al, 2012).
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Mathematics gender differences are result of equal amounts of biological and social
factors (Cambell et al, 2004; Pearce, 2003; Spinath, Spinath, & Plomin, 2008).
• Stereotype threat is a fear of one’s performance being judged
based on socially constructed, negative stereotype (Shapiro &
Williams, 2012; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Tomasetto,
Alparone, & Cadinu, 2011).
• Women underperform when exposed to stereotype threat
(Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008; Shapiro & Williams, 2012;
Spencer et al., 1999).
• Parental endorsement or rejection of gender stereotypes affect
students’ vulnerability or resistance to stereotype threat
(Tomasetto et al., 2011).
• Educating teachers about gender bias and assisting them in recognizing signs in
their own behavior (Tracy & Lane, 1999).
• Differentiated instruction. Students should be taught in accordance with
cognitive gender differences (Geist & King, 2008; James, 2007).
• Single-gender classes. Students can benefit when genders are segregated and
instruction can be adjusted according to each gender’s learning and behavioral
differences (Gurian, Stevens, & Daniels, 2009; Herrelco, Jeffries, & Robertson,
2008).
• Students should be taught to work together in peer-assisted and cooperative
learning environments (Kroeger & Kouche, 2006; Kuntz, McLaughlin, & Howard,
2001; Sparks, 2012; Tournaki & Criscitiello, 2003).
• Provide girls with female role-models, support against stereotype threat and
encouragement in their abilities (Gool et al., 2007; Shapiro & Williams, 2012).
• Stereotype Threats – a psychological fear of being judged based on a
negative stereotype creates extra stress that disrupts and undermines
women’s performance in the circumstances. This theory has been applied
to education and gendered mathematics stereotypes. (Shapiro &
Williams, 2012; Spencer et al., 1998; Tomasetto et al., 2011 )
• Nature and Nurture - While there was a lot of debate whether biological
or social difference attribute to educational gaps in children’s academics,
Robert Plomin proposed that both elements, nature and nurture, must
have equal or near-equal contribution to the differences observed in the
development and educational studies. (Campbell, Verna, & O’ConnorPetruso, 2004; Pearce, 2003; Spinath, Spinath, & Plomin, 2008 )
1.
By creating teams of two (1 boy and 1 girl) during mathematics
instruction for the duration of the whole day, twice a week, for the
period of 10 weeks, in a classroom of 12 students (6 boys, 6 girls) in an
elementary school of Brooklyn, NY, will improve girls’ attitudes toward
mathematics.
1.
By creating teams of two (1 boy and 1 girl) during mathematics
instruction for the duration of the whole day, twice a week, for the
period of 10 weeks, in a classroom of 12 students (6 boys, 6 girls) in an
elementary school of Brooklyn, NY, will improve girls’ tests scores in
mathematics.
• A small group of 2nd grade students, 6 boys and 6 girls,
with an average age of 7 years old who attend
elementary school X in Brooklyn, New York.
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• Cooperative pair-activity lesson
Initial math exam
plans
Initial questionnaire
• Instructions
End-of-study math exam
• Manipulatives
End-of-study questionnaire
• Exercise
Dear Parent/Guardian,
I am currently a student at Brooklyn College in the process of completing a Childhood Education Masters Program. As part of
our curriculum, I am conducting an action research to determine possible beneficial effects of peer-assisted and co-educational
learning instructional strategies on achievement in and attitude toward mathematics among boys and girls. Therefore, I am
requesting your permission to have your child participate in the implementation of aforementioned instructional strategies
and to use your child’s data that is relative to the research.
All instruction will be administered during your child’s regular classroom time, following the scheduled curriculum objectives.
Students will be given a mathematics test and a survey before and after implementation of the new instructional strategies.
Data collected from these sources will be reported as group findings; therefore, all participants’ names and other information
will remain anonymous. Additionally, at the end of the research I will gladly provide final results upon request.
If you have any additional questions or concerns please feel free to contact me by email [email protected]
Thank you in advance for your support!
Sincerely,
Tatyana Sumner
I agree to my child, ________________________________________, participating in the action research described above.
(student’s name)
I do NOT agree to my child, __________________________________________, participating in the action research descried
above.
(student’s name)
Signature of Parent/Guardian ______________________________________ Date _________
Dear Principal,
I am currently a student at Brooklyn College in the process of completing a Childhood Education Masters Program. As part of
our curriculum, I am conducting an action research to determine possible beneficial effects of peer-assisted and coeducational learning instructional strategies on achievement in and attitude toward mathematics among boys and girls.
Therefore, I am requesting your permission to use one fourth-grade classroom in your school to implement the
aforementioned instructional for the duration of the research.
All instruction will be administered during regular classroom time, following the scheduled curriculum objectives. Modified
instruction will take place 3 times a week for the period of 6 weeks. Students will be given a mathematics test and a survey
before and after implementation of the new instructional strategies. Data collected from these sources will be reported as
group findings; therefore, all participants’ names and other information will remain anonymous. Additionally, at the end of
the research I will gladly provide final results upon request.
If you have any additional questions or concerns please feel free to contact me by email [email protected]
Thank you in advance for your support!
Sincerely,
Tatyana Sumner
I, _______________________________________________, give permission to Tatyana Sumner to use one (1) fourth-grade
classroom for the action research as described above.
Signature of Principal ________________________________________ Date ______________
Dear Teacher,
I am currently a student at Brooklyn College in the process of completing a Childhood Education Masters Program. As part of
our curriculum, I am conducting an action research to determine possible beneficial effects of peer-assisted and coeducational learning instructional strategies on achievement in and attitude toward mathematics among boys and girls.
Therefore, I am requesting your participation and cooperation to implement the aforementioned instructional strategies in
your classroom for the duration of the research.
All instruction will be administered during regular classroom time, following the scheduled curriculum objectives. Modified
instruction will take place 3 times a week for the period of 7 weeks. Students will be given a mathematics test and a survey
before and after implementation of the new instructional strategies. Data collected from these sources will be reported as
group findings; therefore, all participants’ names and other information will remain anonymous. Additionally, at the end of
the research I will gladly provide final results upon request.
If you have any additional questions or concerns please feel free to contact me by email [email protected]
Thank you in advance for your support!
Sincerely,
Tatyana Sumner
I, _______________________________________________, agree to participate in the action research as described above.
Signature of Teacher _________________________________________ Date ______________
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