```Mathematics Grade Level
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Vocabulary
Style Guide
Representation of numbers
Contexts
Item Difficulty
Assessment Targets
Vocabulary
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Items must be written so students can
easily understand the item or task.
Use vocabulary at or below grade-level.
Style
Overview of Mathematics Style Conventions
• Use variables to indicate missing
values in equations
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Use the product dot rather
than the multiplication symbol
except in scientific notation
2x + 4 = 16
2  12
a  2a
1.2 × 104 = 12,000
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In grade 8, use the terms
translate, reflect, and rotate
Use graphics or tables to present
information in order to reduce
Translate
Reflect
Rotate
Words vs. Numerals
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Use numerals for
numbers that are used
to solve a problem
for a total of \$45.
What was the price of
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Use numerals for
numbers that appear
in equations
19 + x = 35
Words vs. Numerals
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Use words for a number that is the first word in a sentence
Use words for numbers zero through nine
Use numerals for:
– Numbers 10 and above
– Numbers that precede abbreviated units of measure (e.g., 10 cm, 8 sq. ft.)
– Numbers that precede or follow symbols such as the percent sign or
dollar sign (e.g., 5%, \$9.32)
– Dates and years (e.g., July 4)
– Time of day that appears before A.M. and P.M. (e.g., 3 A.M., 12:30 P.M.)
– Ordered pairs and coordinates (e.g., (3,4))
Commas in Numbers
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Use commas in numbers:
– With five or more digits (e.g., 90,000)
– With four digits if the number appears with numbers
of five or more digits (e.g., 1,000 + 5,000 + 10,000)
– Written as words
(e.g., seventy-three thousand, one hundred)
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Do not use commas in:
– Numbers with four digits if all numbers with which it appears
contain four or less digits (e.g., 50 + 200 + 1000)
– Compound measures (e.g., 5 feet 9 inches tall)
Contexts
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Appropriate contexts
– Popular sports
– Bicycle riding
– Making nominal
purchases
maps and floor plans
– School related activities
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Inappropriate contexts
– Expensive or
regional sports
– Purchases that are
unusual for students
Item Difficulty
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Items should include a range of difficulty
Anticipated difficulty for sample items
Claim 1
Concepts and Procedures:
Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts
and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures
with precision and fluency.
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Selected Response
Constructed Response
Technology-Enhanced
Assessment Targets Measured in Grades 6–8
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Ratios and Proportional Relationships
The Number System
Expressions and Equations
Geometry
Statistics and Probability
Functions
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
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relationships
The Number System
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Grades 6 & 7: Rational numbers
Expressions and Equations
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Grade 7: Create expressions and equations
and use to solve problems
Grade 8: Analyze and solve more complex
problems
Geometry
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Grade 6: Area, surface area, and volume
Grade 7: Drawing and constructing figures
Grade 8: Congruence, similarity, and the
Pythagorean Theorem
Statistics and Probability
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Grade 6: Statistic and probability introduced
probability
Grade 8: Associations in bivariate data
Functions
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and modeling functions
Claim 2 – Problem Solving
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Selected Response, Constructed Response,
Extended Response, and TechnologyEnhanced items that focus on problem
solving
Items and tasks require students to construct
their own pathway to the solution
Relevant verbs include:
– understand, solve, apply, describe, illustrate,
interpret, and analyze
Claim 3 – Communicating Reasoning
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Constructed Response, Extended Response,
that focus on mathematical reasoning
Relevant verbs include:
– understand, explain, justify, prove, derive, assess,
illustrate, and analyze
Claim 4 – Modeling and Data Analysis
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Extended Response items
Real world problems
Draw upon knowledge and skills articulated
in the progression of standards up to the grade
being assessed
Relevant verbs include:
– model, construct, compare, investigate, build, interpret,
estimate, analyze, summarize, represent, solve, evaluate,
extend, and apply
Claims 2, 3, and 4
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Assessment Targets for Claims
2, 3, and 4 are not divided into a