anthocyanins - SJB AG-USA

Grape Product
• Established 1989
• Trusted products used in Australia’s major
wine growing regions for many years
• Modified organic complexing agent
• 5-8 times more available than sulfates
• Excellent pesticide compatibility
• Binds to leaves for prolonged absorption
• High level of crop safety
Low grape prices
Poor water quality in many areas
Diverse climates and soil types
Zinc, manganese & iron deficiencies
Excessive canopy growth
Wet summers & disease outbreaks
Crop safety with cover sprays
• Nutrition plays a very important role in fruit quality
• There are many other factors influencing quality e.g.
Climate, soil type, irrigation, rootstock etc.
• NPK have greatest influence & when in balance, Ca,
Mg & trace elements then play a very important role
in maximising yield potential & berry quality
• Involvement with fruit set, colour & baume
• Potassium
– Protein synthesis, sugar production (baume), water
regulation (eg. drought & frost tolerance), cell extension
• Calcium
– Cell wall structure/integrity, flowering/fruit set, berry
• Magnesium
– Photosynthesis, protein synthesis, sugar transport, bunch
stem necrosis (a complex issue but low Mg has been identified as a
contributing factor in many varieties)
• Zinc
– Hormone production (auxins), protein synthesis, shoot &
root development, reproduction (eg. ‘hen & chicken’),
disease tolerance
• Boron
– Cell wall structure/integrity, flowering/fruit set, sugar
transport, berry firmness, root function, disease tolerance
• Molybdenum
– Nitrate conversion to amino acids, fruit set in Merlot
• Iron
– Photosynthesis, root growth, leaf colour
• Copper
– Lignification (cane development/strength), disease
tolerance, sugar production
• Collectively trace elements also enhance
anthocyanin production
• Calcium, Zinc, Boron & Molybdenum
• Environmental factors also influence flowering
• Zinc deficiency causes poor fruit set, which is known
as ‘hen and chicken’
• Timing is extremely important, 2 weeks prior to
flowering is too late.
• Set is determined early in the season, 1st zinc spray at
10-15cm shoots. If poor set previous season, post
harvest application.
• BORON vital role in pollen tube growth
• Low boron levels at flowering will cause poor setting.
• Boron has limited mobility in grapevines so apply
1-2 weeks prior to flowering.
• MOLYBDENUM is involved in converting Nitrates
into a form which the vine can use.
• Has been shown to play an important role in fruit
set in Merlot (minimum petiole levels at
flowering should be 0.20 ppm)
• Also can affect Cab Sauv, Ruby Cab, Chardonnay,
Sauv Blanc & Cab Franc
• Should be applied early in the season, the same
as zinc.
Cab Sav
• Conducted at Pope Valley VY, AVA (Napa Valley)
• Trial overseen by viticulturalist, Gerald Rowland
• Trial site treated with full SJB Program including
• Observations – Post Set
– very even berry size, more berries per cluster, less shatter
completing bloom earlier, larger leaves, closer internodes,
darker looking shoot tips.
• Observations – Pre Veraison
– more uniform berry sizing, canopy slightly darker and
healthier, row canopy discrete with no crossing and
joining, darker green canopy.
• Observations – Harvest
The trial was so successful and the grower so happy with the results that
at veraison SJB AG-USA products were used with 2 applications over the
entire vineyard contaminating any differences we might have seen in
short term results on sugar or phenolic production harvest data between
control and trial. It can be noted from a historical aspect when comparing
to previous years that the phenolic production and maturation of tannin,
color and seed ripeness’ were better than any from the preceding 6 years.
• It is well established that the phenolic compounds,
known as anthocyanins, have a major impact on
colour of red grape varieties.
• Trace elements play a direct role in the production of
these phenolics, therefore any limiting traces can
reduce anthocyanin levels in the skin
• Anthocyanins production peaks around 100%
Veraison and tend to drop off towards harvest
• Post fruit set applications of traces will help
maximise anthocyanin production. Especially
targeting any elements low in petiole analysis
• The most consistent inhibitor of anthocyanins is high
nitrogen levels.
• High N causes excess growth reducing sunlight
exposure and also larger berry sizes which dilute the
anthocyanin levels in the skin.
• Trace elements (eg. Moly) help regulate Nitrogen
levels and also aid in ripening.
• Magnesium sprays at Veraison also assist in berry
colour development.
Many contributing factors affecting Baume
Primary factors are Climate and Weather.
Potassium and Boron play important roles
Potassium is important in sugar production
Boron is involved in sugar transportation to berries
Increased sucrose in berries, increases polyphenol
production (eg. anthocyanins) & enhances color
• Foliar Potassium/Boron at Veraison is the most
effective option, without increasing berry acid ratio
• The role of foliar sprays is to supplement soil
nutrients during peak demand periods
• Ensure key nutrients are at optimal levels in the plant
at critical growth stages
• Timing is the key for effective foliar nutrition!
• 3 main options for foliar nutrition
– Oxides, Sulfates and Chelates/complexes
Suspension products
High analysis 70 – 100% w/v
Nutrient has a very strong bond with Oxygen
Makes them highly compatible
Availability is low and very slow
Sits on the leaf surface
Not a good option for viticulture
Highly soluble
Very reactive
Low compatibility and can interfere with Fungicides
Taken up quickly but will not deliver nutrients over an
extended period of time therefore frequent reapplication
is required
– Tendency to cause leaf burn (phytotoxic)
– Low cost
– Suited to soil application
– Literally means 'claw' (Greek - chele).
– The primary role of a chelate is to increase the plant
availability of nutrient elements applied to the soil or
directly onto the plant.
Note: In California lignosulfonates are defined as
“complexes” & not chelates. Many years of scientific research
has shown that lignosulfonates are good chelating agents,
however the quality of the lignosulfonate material is very
critical in determining what level of nutrients can be
effectively in chelate form. The large variation in the quality
of available lignosulfonate compounds may be one reason
why the CDFA has taken a more conservative approach than
other states.
5-10 times more available than non-chelated
Very soluble and compatible
Won’t interact with fungicides
Quickly absorbed and translocated
High level of crop safety
High quality Chelate is the best option for foliar
• What makes a chelate high quality?
– Level of chelation,
– Particle size
– Type of chelate
• Level of chelation
– Paying premium for a chelate so should be a high % of
element in chelate form
– Ask what % of label analysis w/v is in chelate form
• Particle Size
– A high quality chelate should have a small particle size so it
can move through the leaf cuticle
• Type of Chelate
– Main 2 on market are EDTA (synthetic) and
Lignosulphonates (organic)
– Others include amino acids and citric acid (very weak
Small particle size
Strong chelation charge
Suited to chelating Iron
Too strong of a bond for weaker elements
Any free iron in water will replace chelated nutrient
Can only protect Cations
No sticking or wetting properties
By product of wood pulping, organic.
Vary in particle size depending on quality
Very good compatibility
Chelation holding power is equal across elements
Have ability to complex Anions and Cations
Very good sticking or wetting properties
Rainfast in 2-3 hours
Great companion for fungicides
Very good crop safety
• Complete nutrient spray with complexed trace
• Ideal for establishment of young vines
• Low cost input
• Compatible with most insecticides/fungicides
• Effective up the drip on young vines
• Use as binder to enhance cover spray efficacy
• Promotes even growth not excessive vigour
• Fully chelated for optimum foliar uptake
• Quick correction of major deficiencies @ 1.5 qt/ac
• Can be effectively applied earlier (4 inch shoots) than
sulfates or oxides
• Promotes even berry set (reduces ‘hen & chicken’)
• Excellent binding properties allows early application
• Great chemical & nutrient compatibility
Good balance of essential micronutrients + N, Mg, S
Low rate @ 1 qt/ac will correct deficiencies
Fully complexed cations (Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, Cu)
Excellent binding properties minimises wash-off
Improves plant health, disease resistance (eg.
production of key antioxidants)
• Enhances production of anthocyanins
• Boron enhances flowering & fruit quality
• Good chemical & nutrient compatibility
Chelated calcium with polyborate complex
Added boron improves root uptake of calcium
Enhances flowering & fruit set
Can be safely applied during flowering
Improves fruit strength & resistance to fungal
infection & bunch stem necrosis
• Excellent leaf binding properties
• Good chemical & nutrient compatibility
• Quick translocation to developing fruit
• Increases sugar production (baume)
• Much more effective than soil potassium particularly
later in the season
• Promotes berry size, weight & colour
• Counters the detrimental affects of high nitrogen
during ripening
• Added boron promotes calcium uptake
• Good chemical & nutrient compatibility
Quick leaf uptake
Optimises photosynthesis & sugar production
More effective late season than soil application
Enhances berry color
Can reduce severity of bunch stem necrosis
High analysis complex
Excellent chemical & nutrient compatibility
• Essential for fruit set in Merlot
• Converts nitrates to amino acids/proteins
• Helps to reduce excessive vine vigor that can
compromise fruit quality & increase disease risk
• Excellent chemical & nutrient compatibility
• Lignosulfonate binding & wetting properties aid foliar
• SJB is a long established company & industry leader
with extensive knowledge of soil & plant nutrition
• Nutrition a key component for grape quality & yield
• Foliar sprays are effective tools for enhancing, fruit
set, color & baume, but timing is critical
• SJB complexes are specifically formulated for foliar
uptake, more efficient than sulfates/oxides with
excellent compatibility & crop safety
• Early trials showing significant responses to SJB
nutrition programs & products

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