What is the Connection between Anaerobic Metabolism and Dental Plaque? By, Jill Johnston Dental Plaque • Bacteria • Polysaccharides form sticky colonies • Plaque formation • Anaerobic metabolism CAUTION! -High Sugar Diets -Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches -Examples: Candy, Fruit, Cake, Soft Drinks, Ice Cream How it works… Carbohydrates (Sugars and Starches) Bacteria present in mouth utilize sugars ex: Sucrose Acids (waste products) ex: Lactate & Pyruvate Over time… Overtime acid destroys tooth enamel, even dentin rapid bacterial growth in holes made Causes Tooth Decay and/or Gingivitis long term Plaque on tooth roots, under gum, can cause breakdown of bone and tooth support (Periodontal Disease) Bacteria uses fructose to get energy Lactic acid creates extra acidity to decrease the pH, which can dissolve the calcium phosphate in the tooth enamel leading to the start of a cavity. Over-view of Article Sugar, Saliva, and Bacteria lead to tooth decay over time. Treatments • • • • • • • • Flossing Brushing No Tobacco use Good Diet Fluoride Home tests Yearly exams/cleanings (PIC.) Holistic treatments Dangers -Gum Disease (Gingivitis) -Tooth Decay -Severe Gum Disease (Periodontal Disease) seems to be associated with: *Heart Disease *Diabetes * Dementia *Heart attacks *Premature birth *Rheumatoid Arthritis References Hua, X., Cook, G. S., Costerton, J. W., Bruce, G., Rose, T. M., Lamont, R. J. "Intergeneric Communication in Dental Plaque Biofilms." Journal of Bacteriology. 2000. Volume 182. p. 7067-7069. Lam P, Lavik G, Jensen MM, Vossenberg J, Schmid M, Woebken D, Dimitri G, Amann R, Jetten MSM, Kuypers MMM: Revising the nitrogen cycle in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009, 106(12):4752-4757 Lepp PW, Brinig MM, Ouverney CC, Palm K, Armitage GC, Relman DA: Methanogenic Archaea and human periodontal disease.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101(16):61766181 Marsh, P.D. "Dental Plaque as a Microbial Biofilm." Caries Research. 2004. Volume 38. p.204-211 Marquis, M. E., "Oxygen metabolism, oxidative stress and acid-base physiology of dental plaque biofilms." Journal of Industrial Microbiology. Volume 15. p. 198-207 Mohan SB, Cole JA: The Dissimilatory Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia by Anaerobic Bacteria. In The Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle. 1st edition. Edited by Bothe H, Ferguson SJ, Newton WE. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2007.