Music in the Liturgy Since Vatican II

Report
Fr Jan Michael Joncas
Music in the Liturgy since Vatican II:
Something Old, Something New,
Something Borrowed, Something
True
1. Roman Catholic
Liturgical Music on the Eve
of Vatican II
Two categories of communal
worship
• Liturgies: formal public prayer of the Church as
designated in the Church’s official worship books
– Celebrations of the [seven] sacraments
– Celebrations of the sacramentals
– The Liturgy of the Hours / Daily Office
• Para-liturgies or devotions: territorial or local prayer of
the Church not designated in the Church’s official
worship books
– Communal recitation of the rosary
– Novenas
Missa Cantata
• Terminology: “sung,” “high” or “choir” Mass
• Celebrated by a priest (or bishop: “pontifical high
Mass”) assisted by deacon and sub-deacon
• All publicly proclaimed texts of the Mass were
chanted between the ministers and the schola
cantorum
• Variable “proper” chants (Antiphona ad Introitum,
Graduale, Alleluia, [Sequentia], Antiphona ad
Offertorium, Antiphona ad Communionem)
• Invariable “ordinary” chants (Kyrie eleison, Gloria
in excelsis, Credo, Sanctus-Benedictus, Agnus
Dei)
Missa Lecta
• Terminology: “read” or “low” Mass
• Celebrated by a priest assisted by at least one
server who recited the publicly proclaimed texts of
the liturgy in Latin
• “Missa recitata” or “dialogue Mass” had the
congregation recite those portions of the liturgy
recited by the servers
• Entrance, Offertory, Communion and Exit hymns
might be inserted
Para-Liturgies/Devotions
• Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
– “O Salutaris Hostia”
– “Tantum ergo sacramentum”
• Stations of the Cross
– “At the Cross Her Station Keeping”
2. Vatican II on Congregational
Song
Chapter Six of Sacrosanctum
Concilium
Underlying assertions
• The purpose of liturgical music participates in the
purpose of the liturgy itself, which is “the glory of
God and the sanctification of the faithful” [112].
• “Mother Church earnestly desires that all the
faithful should be led to that full, conscious and
active participation in liturgical celebrations
which is demanded by the very nature of the
liturgy…. [F]ull and active participation by all the
people is the aim to be considered before all
else….” [14]
• “[S]ince the use of the mother tongue,
whether in the Mass, the administration of
the sacraments, or other parts of the
liturgy, frequently may be of great
advantage to the people, the limits of its
employment may be extended. This will
apply…to some of the…chants…” [36.2].
SC on congregational singing
• “Liturgical worship is given a more noble form
when the divine offices are celebrated solemnly in
song, with the assistance of sacred ministers and
the active participation of the people.” [113]
• “[C]hoirs must be diligently promoted…; but
bishops and other pastors of souls must be at
pains to ensure that…the whole body of the
faithful may be able to contribute that active
participation which is rightly theirs…” [114].
• “Religious singing by the people is to be
intelligently fostered so that in devotions and
sacred exercises, as also during liturgical services,
the voices of the faithful may ring out…” [118].
• “Let them [composers] produce compositions
which have the qualities proper to genuine sacred
music,…providing…for the active participation of
the entire assembly of the faithful.” [121]
3. Twelve Branches of Roman Rite
Liturgical Music Since Vatican II
3.1. Continuing Roman Rite Chant
Traditions
• Basic repertoire: Jubilate Deo (1974/1987)
• Easier congregational chants for Mass: Liber
cantualis / Kyriale simplex
• Easier choral chants for Mass: Graduale
simplex / Cantus selecti
• More challenging choral chants for Mass:
Graduale Romanum, Graduale Triplex,
Gregorian Missal for Sundays
3.2. Creating a Vernacular Service
Music Repertoire
• Jan Vermulst: Mass for Christian Unity,
People’s Mass
• Richard Proulx: “Holy, Holy, Holy” from
Community Mass 2010
• St. Louis Jesuits: “Holy, Holy, Holy” from D
major Mass
• Marty Haugen: “Preface/Holy, Holy, Holy”
from Mass of Creation 2010
3.3. Importing European Roman
Catholic Liturgical Music
• Joseph Gelineau: “Psalm 8” from Psalms and
Canticles
• Lucien Deiss, CSSP.: “The Spirit of God” from
Biblical Hymns and Psalms
• Jacques Berthier (monastery of Taizé):
various collections
• Bernard Huijbers: The Performing Audience
3.4. Adapting Vernacular Folk
Hymnody
• English-language carols: e.g., “The First Nowell”
• American folk-tunes applied to English-language
worship texts: e.g., “BEACH SPRING”
• African-American spirituals and gospel songs:
e.g., “He’s Got The Whole World”
• Folk melodies from many cultures applied to
English-language worship texts: e.g., “Angels We
Have Heard on High,” “Lo, How A Rose E’er
Blooming”
3.5. Importing and Adapting Music
from Entertainment Venues
• Broadcast media: e.g. “From a Distance”
• Musical theater: e.g., “Godspell”
• C. Alexander Peloquin: “All the Ends of the
Earth” from Songs of Israel
3.6. Importing and Adapting Classic
Protestant Hymnody
• Isaac Watts: e.g., “Joy to the World!”, “When I
Survey the Wondrous Cross,” “O God, our
Help in Ages Past”
• [John and] Charles Wesley: e.g., “Hark! The
Herald Angels Sing,” “Rejoice the Lord is
King!”, “Love Divine, All Loves Excelling”
• John Mason Neale: e.g., “O Come, O Come
Emmanuel,” “All Glory, Laud and Honor,”
“Draw Near and Take the Body of the Lord”
3.7. Creating Roman Rite Vernacular
Liturgical Texts
• James Quinn: e.g., “I Am the Word That
Spoke and Light Was Made”
• Omer Westendorf: e.g., “Gift of Finest
Wheat”
3.8. Creating Roman Rite
Liturgical/Ritual Music
• Stage One: 1965-1975
• Hymnal for Young Christians (Ray Repp,
James Thiem, Rev. Cyril A Reilly, Rev.
Peter Scholtes, Rev. W. F. Jabusch)
• Peoples Mass Book (Joe Wise, Tom
Parker, Sebastian Temple, Jack Miffleton)
• Carey Landry: Hi, God!
• James Thiem: Sons of God [HYC pp. 9899]
• REFRAIN:
• Sons of God, hear his holy Word! / Gather
‘round the table of the Lord! / Eat his Body,
drink his Blood / And we’ll sing a song of love:
/ Allelu, allelu, allelu, alleluia
• 1. Brothers, sisters, we are one, / And our life
has just begun; / In the Spirit we are young; /
We can live forever.
• Stage Two: 1975-1985
• The Dameans (Darryl Ducote, Mike Balhoff, Dave
Baker, Buddy Ceaser, and Gary Ault): “Look Beyond,”
“Beginning Today”
• St. Louis Jesuits (Bob Dufford, SJ, John Foley, SJ, Tim
Mannion, Roc O’Connor, SJ, Dan Schutte): “Sing to
the Mountains,” “Glory and Praise to Our God,” “For
You Are My God” Neither Silver Nor Gold
• Glory and Praise (1977 ff)
• Stage Three: 1985• St. Thomas More group (Stephen Dean,
Peter Jones, Peter McGrail, Anne Quigley,
Bill Tamblyn, James Walsh, Paul Inwood,
Bernadette Farrell, Christopher Walker)
• Marty Haugen, David Haas, Mike Joncas
3.9. Developing Roman Rite Englishlanguage Chant
• Corpus Christi Watershed Propers
(www.ccwatershed.org)
• Paul F. Ford: By Flowing Water [Liturgical Press]
• Collegeville Composers’ Group: Psallite: Sacred
Song for Liturgy and Life [Liturgical Press]
• André Gouzes, OP: A Sunday Vigil / The Rangueil
Mass [GIA]
• Luke Mayernik: Ever Ancient, Ever New [OCP]
•
•
•
•
3.10. Adapting Contemporary
Protestant Hymnody
John Bell and the Iona community
Mary Louise Bringle, Ruth Duck, Sally Ann Morris
Carl P. Daw, Jr., Herman G. Stuempfle, Jr.,
Timothy Dudley-Smith, Thomas Troeger, Fred
Pratt Green
• Brian Wren: “Great God, Your Love Has Called Us
Here” from Michael Joncas: O God of Past and
Present (OCP)
3.11. Creating New Roman Catholic
Liturgical Texts
• Delores Dufner, OSB: “Like a Bird That
Spreads Her Wings” from Michael Joncas:
God of All Beginnings (GIA)
• Genevieve Glen, OSB
• Harry Hagan, OSB
• Ralph Wright, OSB
• Alan Hommerding
• Paul Nienaber (Jesuit)
3.12. Creating Bi- and Multi-Cultural
Roman Catholic Ritual Music
• A. “Praise and Worship”/”Contemporary
Christian Music”
• Steve Agrisano, Tom Booth, Tom Franczak,
• Sarah Hart, Danielle Rose
• Matt Maher, Curtis Stephan, Jesse Manibusan
• Paul Mellay, John Angotti, Ed Bolduc
• Example: Chris de Silva: “Gospel Acclamation”
from Mass from Age to Age
• B. African-American: [Rev. Clarence Rivers],
Grayson Warren Brown, Rawn Harbor
• Example: “Glory to God” from Michael Joncas:
Missa ad Gentes/Maryknoll Centennial Mass (GIA)
• C. Spanish-language: Bob Hurd, Donna Peña,
Delores Martinez, Mary Frances Reza, Carlos
Rosas, Pedro Rubalcava, Fr. Juan Sosa, Fr. Ron
Krisman, Tony Alonso, Lorenzo Florian
• Example: “Gospel Acclamation” from Michael
Joncas: Missa ad Gentes/ Maryknoll Centennial
Mass (GIA)
• D. Asian: Ricky Manalo
• Example: “Lamb of God” from Michael
Joncas: Missa ad Gentes/ Maryknoll
Centennial Mass (GIA)
• E. World Music: Iona community
• Example: “We Are Marching in the Light of
God”

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